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ἔτι δὲ κυρία κ.τ.λ.] Not only must the public speaker be acquainted with the manners and customs, institutions, and all that is expedient to or for the interest of these various forms of government, but also with the nature of the governing body (τὸ κύριον) in each; it is by the declarations or proclamations (ἀποφάνσεις) of this supreme authority that the law is given to the citizens and their conduct prescribed to them, and as these are various under the several constitutions (τὰ δὲ κύρια διῄρηταιλύριά ἐστιν), so he must be thoroughly acquainted with all the existing varieties.

ἀπόφασις] so the Vulg., retained by Bekker and Spengel: ἀπόφανσις is found in two MSS: ἀπόφανσις also occurs, with a varia lectio ἀπόφασις in two MSS, in the sense of ‘a declaration or utterance’ (as here) in II 21. 2. ἀπόφασις is no doubt used in the common language in two different senses, (1) ‘denial, contradiction’, as usually in Aristotle, from ἀποφάναι, and (2) ‘a declaration’, from ἀποφαίνειν1, as in Demosthenes and Polybius, VI 3. 1, τὴν ὑπὲρ τοῦ μέλλοντος ἀπόφασιν, 9. 11; 12. 10. But Aristotle most expressly distinguishes the two words again and again in the περὶ ἑρμηνείας, as c. 1, 16 a 1, δεῖ θέσθαι...τί ἐστιν ἀπόφασις καὶ κατάφασις (negative and affirmative) καὶ ἀπόφανσις (an enunciation) καὶ λόγος. c. 5, 17 a 8, λόγος ἀποφαντικὸς κατάφασις, εἶτα ἀπόφασις: c. 6, 17 a 25, κατάφασις δέ ἐστιν ἀπόφανσίς τινος ἀπό τινος: and in very many other places. Is it possible that the author of this treatise could use the one word for the other? On the other side it may be said that Aristotle is extremely hasty and careless in writing, and that the inconsistency is in this case justified and explained by his having for the nonce conformed to the ordinary usage of the language: and the evidence on either side seems so nicely balanced, manuscript authority included, that the question cannot be positively determined. Buhle is very emphatic on the point, ‘equidem iure meo ἀπόφανσις reposui.’

1 As φάσις is derived from φαίνειν, so of course may ἀπόφασις be formed from ἀποφαίνειν.

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