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On this kind of ἤθη, one of the three by which an ethical character is conveyed to the speech, and which is employed as an indirect argument or means of persuasion, see Introduction on this passage, p. 182, and on the ἤθη in general, p. 110 seq.

The spirit and tone of the speech, and the expressions employed, must be in conformity with the national character of the audience, as determined by the end of their special form of government; a democratical tone and language must not be adopted in addressing an oligarchical audience, and vice versa.

ταῦτα δὲ ληφθήσεται κ.τ.λ.] These ‘political characters’, he says, ‘will be found by the same means’, by the same kind of observation and study, as the other ἤθη, the individual characters: ‘in both, the characters are manifested in the choice or purpose1, which is always directed to the end (which we desire to attain)’. As the individual character is shewn by the purpose or intention of every act, so the national character of the people, as a body, is manifested in their choice and purpose, which is directed to the general end, aim, and object, or the general pervading principle, of the state and its institutions: it is this common view and purpose which gives them their national character; and to this the speech must conform in order to be acceptable.

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