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ἐπεὶ δὲ τὰ σημεῖα κ.τ.λ.] An exemplification of the preceding rule, and application of it to the special virtues. ‘Seeing that the signs of virtue, and all such things as are works (results, effects), or affections’ (properties, qualities, attributes—on πάθη and its various senses see Introd. pp. 113—118; on the special sense here, p. 114) ‘of it are καλά’, the same rule will apply to each special manifestation of it, as ἀνδρία. The πάθη of virtue are illustrated in the examples by ἀνδρείως, δικαίως, ἀδίκως: these are παθη, ‘affections’, of courage, justice, and injustice, in the sense of ‘what happens to them’, some change they have undergone, consisting in a modification of them in form and signification; as δικαίως ‘justly’, denotes a certain mode of action, viz. just acting. An exception occurs to the general application of the rule to the special virtues in the case of δικαιοσύνη: in this alone, though it is true of the ἔργα, it is not true of the πάθη: in other words, in the rest of the virtues the πτώσεις are σύστοιχα, the changes of termination represent true co-ordinates, all being terms referable to the same notion or class, viz. that of virtue, as ἀνδρία, ἀνδρεῖος, ἀνδρείως: all are equally καλά and praiseworthy (see note on c. 7. 27); but in the single case of justice this does not universally apply, for τὸ δικαίως ζημοῦσθαι, just (deserved) punishment, is not equally praiseworthy with a just act, τὸ δικαίως πράττειν, but the contrary; since it is more disgraceful than an unjust punishment. (This seems to be a mere fallacy of ὁμωνυμία, ambiguity, equivoque, δικαίως not standing in the same relation to ζημιοῦσθαι and πράττειν: in the one case the ‘justice’ of the act lies in the intention of the actor; in the other it belongs not to the actor, but to the law and the judge who inflicts the punishment. A similar equivocal meaning lies in the word πάθος: in the rule and the general application of it, it stands for properties or attributes: in the special exception it denotes an ‘affection’ in the sense of suffering or punishment.)
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