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φανερὸν οἷς] See note on II 9. 11, at the end.

‘It is plain too who are the objects of envy, from the mention that has been already made of them incidentally’ (ἅμα simultaneously; with something else, another subject, to which it did not properly belong: in § 2, namely, as an appendix to the definitions); ‘those, namely, who are near to us in time, and place, and age, and reputation, are the ordinary objects of envy’.

τοῖς ἐγγὺς...ἡλικίᾳ...φθονοῦσιν] Victorius illustrates ἡλικίᾳ by the instance of Fabius Maximus' defence of himself against the suspicion of having opposed himself to Publius Scipio out of envy: docuit enim si nullae aliae res ab ea culpa ipsum vindicarent, aetatem saltem liberare debere; quod nulla aemulatio seni cum P. Scipione esse posset, qui ne filio quidem ipsius aequalis foret [paraphrased from Livy XXVIII.40, where the defence is given in oratio recta].

‘Whence the saying’, (of doubtful authorship: attributed by the Scholiast to Aeschylus, apud Spengel) ‘“Kinship is well acquainted with envy too.” And those whom we are ambitious of rivalling’ (on πρὸς οὓς φιλοτιμοῦνται, see note on II 2. 22); ‘which occurs towards those just mentioned (τοῖς ἐγγὺς κ.τ.λ. opposed to the following, who are all πόῤῥω, ἄπωθεν, ‘far off’ in place or time); but towards those who were alive ten thousand years ago’ (lit. to whom it is now the 10,000th year since they were, from the time of their existence), ‘or those who are yet to be (yet unborn), or already dead’, (differs from the first in the length of time—the dead may be recently dead), ‘never: nor towards those who are at the world's end’.

τοὺς ἐφ᾽ Ἡρακλείαις στήλαις] The ‘columns of Hercules’, the limits of the known world, stand in the place of our ‘antipodes’ to express extreme remoteness—all beyond them being a mystery. Arist., Meteor. II 1. 10, assigns it as the extreme boundary of the Mediterranean sea, ἐντὸς Ἡρακλείων στηλῶν (θάλασσα); the Mediterranean itself being ἔσω, ἐντός, θάλασσα, mare internum, intestinum. See the article in Smith's Dict. of Geogr. Vol. II. p. 57, Internum Mare: and Vol. I. p. 1054, Herculis Columnae. With Aristotle's metaphor in the Rhet. comp. Pind. Ol. III 79, Θήρων ἅπτεται Ἡρακλέος σταλᾶν. τὸ πόρσω δ᾽ ἔστι σοφοῖς ἄβατον ἄβατον κἀσόφοις, and again, Nem. III 35, οὐκέτι πρόσω ἀβάταν ἅλα κιόνων ὑπὲρ Ἡρακλέος περᾷν εὐμαρές. Isthm. IV 20. In Nem. IV 112, Γάδειρα takes its place.

‘Nor (do we attempt to rival) those to whom, either by our own judgment, or that of everybody else, we are brought to the opinion that we are far inferior’, (this is the general case of superiority and inferiority, dignitate atque opibus, Victorius,) ‘or superior; and the same is true with regard to similar things as to these persons’, i. e. the same that has been said of these persons, may be applied equally to the corresponding things for which men compete (this is the special case of competition in some particular art, pursuit, or excellence; the case for example of an ordinary mathematician and Sir Isaac Newton, or in any other art or profession the distinguished and the undistinguished practitioner).

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