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‘And their course of life is directed rather by calculation than character: for calculation is directed to one's own interest, whereas character is indicative of virtue’. The opposite of this, c. 12. 12.

ἦθος] is ‘the impulse of character’, as before. Virtuous ‘dispositions’ or ‘characters’ are natural to us, Eth. N. VI 13, u. s. πᾶσι γὰρ δοκεῖ ἕκαστα τῶν ἠθῶν ὑπάρχειν φύσει πως: καὶ γὰρ δίκαιοι καὶ σωφρονικοὶ καὶ ἀνδρεῖοι καὶ τἆλλα ἔχομεν εὐθὺς ἐκ γενετῆς. These however are not virtues—Eth. N. II 1, sub init., οὐδεμία τῶν ἠθικῶν ἀρετῶν φύσει ἡμῖν ἐγγίνεται:—but dispositions or tendencies to virtue, δυνάμεις, which may be developed into ἕξεις, of which σωφρονικός (having a tendency to σωφροσύνη) is an individual instance.

‘And the offences which they commit incline rather to petty knavery and mischief than to insolence and wanton outrage’. See c. 12. 15, and the passages there referred to.

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