previous next

‘They are also voluptuous (dainty and effeminate, molles et delicati, Victorius), and prone to vulgar ostentation, the former by reason of their self-indulgence (the luxury in which they live) and the (constant) display of their wealth and prosperity (εὐδαίμων, as well as ὄλβιος, = πλούσιος); ostentatious and ill-bred, because they (like others) are all accustomed to spend their time and thoughts upon what they themselves love and admire (and therefore, as they think about nothing but their wealth, so they are never weary of vaunting and displaying, which makes them rude and ostentatious), and also because they suppose that everybody else admires and emulates what they do themselves’. Foolishly supposing that every one else feels the same interest in the display of wealth that they do themselves, they flaunt in their neighbours' eyes till they excite repugnance and contempt instead of admiration.

τρυφεροί] denotes luxury τρυφή, and its effects, luxurious, effeminate, voluptuous habits: Eth. N. VII 8, 1150 b 1, δ᾽ ἐλλείπων πρὸς οἱ πολλοὶ καὶ ἀντιτείνουσι καὶ δύνανται, οὗτος μαλακὸς καὶ τρυφῶν: καὶ γὰρ τρυφὴ μαλακία τίς ἐστιν. Eth. Eudem. II 3. 8, μὲν μηδεμίαν ὑπομένων λύπην, μηδ᾽ εἰ βέλτιον, τρυφερός.

σαλάκωνες] denotes vulgar ostentation, and is very near akin to, if not absolutely identical with, βαναυσία and ἀπειροκαλία; the former is the excess of μεγαλοπρέπεια, proper magnificence in expenditure: the βάναυσος goes beyond this, spending extravagantly where it is not required: Eth. Nic. IV 6, 1123 a 21, seq., ἐν γὰρ τοῖς μικροῖς τῶν δαπανημάτων πολλὰ ἀναλίσκει καὶ λαμπρύνεται παρὰ μέλος—of which some instances are given —καὶ πάντα τὰ τοιαῦτα ποιήσει οὐ τοῦ καλοῦ ἕνεκα, ἀλλὰ τὸν πλοῦτον ἐπιδεικνύμενος, καὶ διὰ ταῦτα οἰόμενος θαυμάζεσθαι. Ib. c. 4, 1122 a 31, δ᾽ ὑπερβολή (ἐλευθεριότητος) βαναυσία καὶ ἀπειροκαλία (bad taste) καὶ ὅσαι τοιαῦται,...ἐν οἷς οὐ δεῖ καὶ ὡς οὐ δεῖ λαμπρυνόμεναι. Comp. Eth. Eudem. II 3. 9, ἄσωτος (spendthrift) μὲν πρὸς ἅπασαν δαπάνην ὑπερβάλλων, ἀνελεύθερος δ᾽ πρὸς ἅπασαν ἐλλείπων. ὁμοίως δὲ καὶ μικροπρεπὴς καὶ σαλάκων: μὲν γὰρ ὑπερβάλλει τὸ πρέπον ( σαλάκων), δ᾽ ἐλλείπει τοῦ πρέποντος. Hesych. s. v. σαλακωνία: ἐν πενίᾳ ἀλαζονεία. σαλακωνίσαι: (after a different and wrong explanation, he adds) δὲ Θεόφραστος σαλάκωνά φησιν εἶναι, τὸν δαπανῶντα ὅπου μὴ δεῖ; which agrees with Aristotle. Suidas, s.v. σαλάκων: προσποιούμενος πλούσιος εἶναι, πένης ὤν (as Hesych.), καὶ σαλακωνία ἀλαζονεία ὑπὲρ τὸ δέον, καὶ σαλκωνίσαι ἀλαζονεύεσθαι. Ib. διασαλακωνίσαι, διαθρύψασθαι: “εἶτα πλουσίως ὡδὶ προβὰς τρυφερόν τι διασαλακώνισον” (‘swagger’, Arist. Vesp. 1169).

σόλοικοι] ‘rude, ill-mannered, ill-bred’; liable to make mistakes, or commit solecisms; first, in language—σολοικίζειν, τῇ λέξει βαρβαρίζειν, Top. I (de Soph. El.) 3, ult. [p. 165 b 21]—and secondly, transferred thence to manners, conduct, breeding. Victorius cites, Xen. Cyr. VIII 3. 21, Δαϊφάρνης δέ τις ἦν σολοικότερος ἄνθρωπος τῷ τρόπῳ, ὃς ᾤετο εἰ μὴ ταχὺ ὑπακούοι ἐλευθερώτερος ἂν φαίνεσθαι. Plut. Pol. Praec. p. 817 A, οὐχ ὥσπερ ἔνιοι τῶν ἀπειροκάλων καὶ σολοίκων. Ib. Vit. Dion. p. 965 A, οὐδὲν ἐν τῇ διαίτῃ σόλοικον ἐπιδεικνύμενος. The word is derived from Σόλοι, a town of Cilicia (there was another place of the same name in Cyprus), πόλις ἀξιόλογες (Strabo). ‘Qui cum barbare loquerentur, inde vocabulum hoc ad omnes vitioso sermone utentes, et tandem ad illos quoque qui in actionibus suis ineptiunt, est translatum’ (Schrader). Strabo XIV c. 5, Cilicia. Diog. Laert., Solon I 51, ἐκεῖθέν τε ἀπαλλαγεὶς ( Κροῖσος) ἐγένετο ἐν Κιλικίᾳ, καὶ πόλιν συνῴκισεν ἣν ἀπ᾽ αὐτοῦ (Solon) Σόλους ἐκάλεσεν: (others represent Soli as founded by the Argives and Lindians from Rhodes. Smith's Dict. Geogr. Vol. III 1012 b); ὀλίγους τέ τινας τῶν Ἀθηναίων ἐγκατῴκισεν, οἳ τῷ χρόνῳ τὴν φωνὴν ἀποξενωθέντες ἐλέχθησαν. καί εἰσιν οἱ μὲν ἔνθεν Σολεῖς, οἱ δ᾽ ἀπὸ Κύπρου Σόλιοι. Schrader therefore is incorrect in saying, ‘Solis oppidum cuius incolae Soloeci’; σόλοικος is derived from Σόλοι, but is not the name of one of its inhabitants.

‘And at the same time, these affections are natural to them, for many are they who require (the aid, the services) of the wealthy’. They have an excuse for being thus affected by their wealth; the numerous claimants upon their bounty elate them with a sense of superiority, and at the same time by their servility give them frequent opportunities of exercising at their expense their ostentation and ill manners. On οἱ ἔχοντες, the possessors of property, sub. χρήματα, see Monk on Eur. Alc. 57.—‘Whence also—this also gave occasion to the saying of Simonides about the philosophers and men of wealth to Hiero's wife, when she asked him whether it was better to get rich or wise (to acquire riches or wisdom): Rich, he replied: for, said he, I see the philosophers waiting (passing their time) at the doors of the rich’. This same story is alluded to by Plato, Rep. VI 489 C, without naming the author of the saying, who indignantly denies its truth. The Scholiast, in supplying the omission, combines the two different versions of Aristotle and Diog. Laert., and describes it as a dialogue between Socrates and Eubulus. Diog. Laert. (II 8. 4, Aristip. § 69) tells the story thus: ἐρωτηθεὶς (Aristippus) ὑπὸ Διονυσίου διὰ τί οἱ μὲν φιλόσοφοι ἐπὶ τὰς τῶν πλουσίων θύρας ἔρχονται, οἱ δὲ πλούσιοι ἐπὶ τὰς τῶν φιλοσόφων οὐκέτι, ἔφη, ὅτι οἱ μὲν ἴσασιν ὧν δεόνται, οἱ δ᾽ οὐκ ἴσασιν1.

On ἐπὶ ταῖς τῶν πλουσίων θύραις, see Ast ad Pl. Phaedr. 245 A, p. 376. Add to the examples there given, Plat. Symp. 183 A, 203 D, de amantibus. θυραυλεῖν, Ruhnken ad Tim. p. 144, Stallbaum ad Symp. 203 D, Arist. Eccl. 963.

1 The merit of another mot attributed to Aristippus, as it is also connected with our present subject, may excuse its insertion here. Διονυσίου ποτ᾽ ἐρομένου (τὸν Ἀρίστιππον) ἐπὶ τί ἥκοι, ἔφη...ὅποτε μὲν σοφίας ἐδεόμην, ἧκον παρὰ τὸν Σωκράτην: νῦν δε χρημάτων δεόμενος παρὰ δὲ ἥκω. Diog. Laert. u. s. § 78.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 United States License.

An XML version of this text is available for download, with the additional restriction that you offer Perseus any modifications you make. Perseus provides credit for all accepted changes, storing new additions in a versioning system.

hide Display Preferences
Greek Display:
Arabic Display:
View by Default:
Browse Bar: