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The last of the three κοινοί τόποι is that of amplification and depreciation, of exalting and magnifying or disparaging and vilifying anything, according as we desire to set it in a favourable or unfavourable light. Its usual name is αὔξειν καὶ μειοῦν, II 18. 4; 26. 1; III 19. 3. Comp. Introd. p. 276, on II 26, and the note. Though this is a κοινός τόπος, and therefore can be used in the three branches of Rhetoric, it is most especially applicable to the ἐπιδεικτικὸν γενός, and finds there its most natural and appropriate sphere; I 9. 40. ‘The subject of (περί) the arguments or inferences that may be drawn as to the value of things, absolute or comparative; of greatness and littleness of things in themselves, or relatively to one another; or in general of things great and small; is clear from what has been already said’. They have been treated of under the head of the deliberative branch of Rhetoric, in I 6, on things good in themselves, and I 7, on the degrees, or comparative value of them. ἁπλῶς] simpliciter (Victorius), seems to be more applicable to μέγεθος than to the relative μεῖζον and ἔλαττον. As it is applied here to the latter, it must mean that the degree, or relative value, is the only thing which is taken into the account of them in that chapter. ‘And therefore, since in each of the three kinds of speeches (1 3. 5) the end or object proposed is some form of good, that is to say, either the expedient, or the fair and right, or the just, it is plain that these must be the channels by which they are all (all three kinds of speakers) supplied with the materials of their amplifications’. οἷον] ‘that is to say’, nempe, scilicet, not ‘for instance’; defining or explaining, not exemplifying; occurs perpetually in Aristotle's writings. Waitz has some examples on Categ. c. 4, 1 b 18; comp. note on 4 b 23; and Bonitz on Metaph. A 4, 985 b 6. [For some instances, see infra, note on III 1. 4.]
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