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‘And with such as stand quietly, calmly, listening to an account of (περὶ), or looking on at (any painful exhibition of) our faults and weaknesses (τὰ φαῦλα), (without offering either help or sympathy); this looks like either contemptuous indifference, or actual enmity: because friends sympathise with us (feel pain as we do ourselves), (and these do not); and every one feels pain at the spectacle, the contemplation, when he witnesses the exposure, of his own infirmities’—the friend, being ἕτερος αὐτός or ἄλλος αὐτός, ‘a second self’ (Eth. Nic. IX several times repeated), must regard the exposure of his friend's weaknesses just as he would of his own.

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