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‘Those that require proof (ἀπόδειξις ‘demonstration’, as before, used loosely for proof of any kind) are all such as state anything paradoxical (contrary to received opinion; or surprising, unexpected, contrary to expectation, and to anything that you ever heard before) or anything which is questioned (or open to question): those that have nothing unexpected about them (may be stated, λέγονται) without a supplement’. These together make up the four kinds.

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