previous next


Top. XVI. ‘Another (inference may be drawn) from the proportion of so and so (ταῦτα)’. This is the argument from analogy in its strict and proper sense, the ‘analogy of relations’. See Sir W. Hamilton, quoted at II 19. 2, and on the argument from analogy in general. The analogy or proportion here is the literal, numerical or geometrical, proportion, 2 : 4 :: 8 : 16. “Analogy or proportion is the similitude of ratios.” Eucl. El. Bk. v def. 8.

This topic also does not appear in the dialectical treatise, where it is inappropriate; nor in Cicero and Quintilian, except so far as the ordinary and popular analogy (see again the note above referred to) is recognised under the names of similitudo (C) and similia (Q). Similitude is between two, proportion requires four terms. Eth. N. V 6, 1131 a 32, γὰρ ἀναλογία ἰσότης ἐστὶ λόγων (equality or parity of ratios), καὶ ἐν τέταρσιν ἐλαχίστοις. And comp. the explanation of the ‘proportional’ metaphor in Poet. XXI 11, and the examples, §§ 12, 13. Accordingly of the two examples each has four terms, and the inference is drawn from the similitude of the two ratios.

‘As Iphicrates, when they (the assembly, ψηφιοῦνται,) wanted to force upon his son the discharge of one of the liturgies’ (pecuniary contributions to the service of the state, ordinary and extraordinary, of a very onerous character), ‘because he was tall, though he was younger than the age (required by law), said that if they suppose tall boys to be men, they will have to vote short men to be boys’: the proportion being, Tall boys : men :: short men : boys. Two ratios of equality. The argument is a reductio ad absurdum. The first ratio is hypothetical. If tall boys are really to be regarded as men, then by the same ratio, &c.

‘And Theodectes, in the “law”’ (which he proposes, in his declamation, for the reform of the mercenary service, see above § 11, note) ‘you make citizens of your mercenaries, such as Strabax and Charidemus, for their respectability and virtue, and won't you (by the same proportion) make exiles of those who have been guilty of such desperate (ἀνήκεστα) atrocities?’

Of these ‘mercenaries’ who swarmed in Greece from the beginning of the fourth century onwards, the causes of their growth, their character and conduct, and the injury they brought upon Greece, see an account in Grote, Hist. Gr. Vol. XI p. 392 seq. [chap. LXXXVII].

Charidemus, of Oreus in Euboea, in the middle of that century, was perhaps the most celebrated of their leaders. He was a brave and successful soldier, but faithless, and profligate and reckless in personal character. Theopomp. ap. Athen. X 436 B. C. Theopomp. Fr. 155, Fragm. Hist. Gr., ed. C. and Th. Müller, p. 384 b (Firmin Didot). διὰ τὴν ἐπιείκειαν, therefore, is not to be taken as an exact description of Charidemus' character, but is the assumption upon which the Athenians acted when they conferred these rewards. His only real merit was the service he had done them. He plays a leading part in Demosthenes' speech, c. Aristocratem; who mentions several times, §§ 23, 65, 89, the citizenship conferred on him by the Athenians in acknowledgment of his services, as well as—somewhat later—a golden crown, § 145, πρῶτον πολίτης, εἶτα πάλιν χρυσοῖς στεφάνοις ὡς εὐεργέτης στεφάνωται, § 157, presents, and the name of ‘benefactor’, 185, and 188. Besides the Athenians, he was employed by Cotys and his son Cersobleptes, kings of Thrace, and by Memnon and Mentor in Asia. A complete account of him and his doings is to be found in Weber's Proleg. ad Dem. c. Aristocr. pp. LX—LXXXIII.

Of the other mercenary leader, Strabax, all that we know is derived from Dem. c. Lept. § 84, that through the intervention or by the recommendation (διὰ) of Iphicrates he received a certain ‘honour’ from the Athenians, to which Theodectes' extract here adds that this was the citizenship. We learn further from Harpocration and Suidas that Strabax is—an ὄνομα κύριον. “De commendatione Iphicratis, ornatus Strabax videri potest Iphicratis in eodem bello (sc. Corinthiaco) adiutor fuisse.” F. A. Wolff, ad loc. Dem.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 United States License.

An XML version of this text is available for download, with the additional restriction that you offer Perseus any modifications you make. Perseus provides credit for all accepted changes, storing new additions in a versioning system.

hide Display Preferences
Greek Display:
Arabic Display:
View by Default:
Browse Bar: