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Top. XXVII. ‘Another, from mistakes made; to be employed in accusation or defence’. The example is an illustration of both; the accusers convert the mistake that Medea made in sending away her children into a charge of having murdered them; Medea retorts the same argument from another mistake which she could have committed had she done what they allege, of which however she is incapable. Brandis, “in any mistake that has been made to find a ground of accusation or defence.”

‘For instance, in Carcinus' Medea, the one party (of the disputants in the play) charge her with the death of her children—at all events (say they) they no where appear: because Medea made a mistake in (in respect of) sending away her children (instead of merely sending them away, they argued that she had made away with them, since they were no where to be found): her defence is, that it was not her children, but Jason, that she would have killed (if she had killed any one); for she would have made a mistake in failing to do this, if she had done the other too’: and of such a mistake she never could have been guilty. “Quasi dicat, quomodo tam stulta fuissem' (how could I have made such a mistake?) ‘ut innocentes filios necassem; perfidum autem coniugem e<*> auctorem omnium meorum malorum relinquerem?” Victorius.

Carcinus, a tragic poet contemporary with Aristophanes, and his sons, Philocles, Xenotimus, and Xenocles, are often mentioned by Aristophanes, never without ridicule. See Vesp. 1501—12, Nub. 1261, Pac. 782, 864, and in Holden, Onom. Arist. Müller, Hist. Gr. Lit. c. XXVI § 2, passes him over with very slight notice, “known to us chiefly from the jokes and mockeries of Aristophanes.” Meineke, Hist. Crit. Com. Gr. p. 505 seq., Fragm. Comic. Vol. I., has a long and learned discussion, principally with the object of distinguishing this Carcinus from others of the same name. There was at all events one other tragic poet of the name, whom Meineke supposes to have been the grandson of the former, p. 506, being said by Suidas to be the son of Xenocles (or Theodectes). This Carcinus flourished according to Suidas ‘before the reign of Philip of Macedon’, in the first half of the 4th cent. B.C. Some fragments of his Achilles, Semele, and Tereus, are given by Wagner in his collection, Fragm. Trag. Gr. III 96, seq. with some others of uncertain plays: but he has omitted all those that are mentioned by Aristotle, the Medea here, the Oedipus in III 16. 11, the Thyestes, Poet. 16. 2. In Poet. 17. 2, there is a reference to a character, Amphiaraus, in a play of his not named, with which Ar. finds fault. Athen. I 22 A. See also Clinton, F. H. II. Introd. XXIII.

‘And this topic and the kind of enthymeme is the whole of the earlier art of Theodorus’. Comp. supra § 14 of Callippus, and § 21, of Callippus and Pamphilus.

πρότερον Θ. τέχνη] i. e. πρότερον οὖσα, γεγραμμένη, πεποιημένη: as οἱ πρῶτον, ‘the earliest writers’, III 1. 9. Theodorus’ work must have passed through two editions, of which the second, from what is said here, seems to have been larger and more complete. This one is the ‘first’ or ‘earlier’ edition; the one before the second. If this contained nothing but the illustration of the topic of ‘mistakes’, it must have been extremely insufficient as an ‘art of rhetoric’. We must ascribe either to his second and enlarged ‘Art’ or to speeches and rhetorical exercitations all that Aristotle says of him, together with Tisias and Thrasymachus, de Soph. El. c. 34, 183 b 32, as well as the καινὰ λέγειν, Rhet. III 11. 6, and his divisions of the speech, III 13. 5; as also the notices of him in Plato's Phaedrus, Quintilian, Cicero Brut. XII 48, &c., Dionysius, &c. (which may be found in Camb. Journ. of Cl. and Sacred Phil. No. IX. III 284 foll.1). Of Theodorus of Byzantium—to be distinguished from another Theodorus, a rhetorician of Gadara, Quint. II 15. 21—see further in Speng. Art. Script. p. 98 seq.; Westermann, Gesch. der Beredtsamkeit, § 30. 16, p. 40, § 68. 7, p. 140. Sauppe, Fragm. Or. Att. VIII, Or. Att. III 164, simply refers to Spengel's Artium Scriptores, and to his own tract in Zimmerm. diurn. lit. antiq. 1835, p. 406. [Blass, die Attische Beredsamkeit, I p. 253.]

1 In referring to this paper I take the opportunity of withdrawing all that I have said in p. 286, πρότερον Θεοδώρου τέχνη, and the illustration from Carcinus. It is sufficiently corrected in the note on this section.

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