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The second branch of these inferences from comparison, is that of parallel cases. This is the argument from analogy, the foundation of induction, the observation of resemblances in things diverse, leading to the establishment of a general rule: the Socratic and Platonic Method: comp. c. 20. 4, note. Ex pari, Cic. de Inv. I 30. 47, ut locus in mari sine portu navibus esse non potest tutus, sic animus sine fide stabilis amicis non potest esse. On the argument from analogy in general, see note on c. 19. 2.

‘Again if the comparison is not of greater and less, (but of things equal or parallel): whence the saying, “Thy father too is to be pitied for the loss of his children. And is not Oeneus then, for the loss of his illustrious offspring?” ἄρα marks the inference. “Par infortunium parem misericordiam meretur.” Schrader. The verses are supposed (by Victorius, Welcker, Trag. Gr. p. 1012, and Wagner, Fr. Trag. Gr. III 185) to be taken from Antiphon's Meleager, which is quoted again § 20, and at II 2. 19. (Antiphon, a Tragic Poet contemporary with the Elder Dionysius, Rhet. II 6. 19, Clinton F. H. Vol. II. Praef. XXXIII, flourished at the end of the fifth cent. B. C. Compare note on II 2. 19.)

The first of the two verses—if the story is that of Meleager—refers to the death of the two sons of Thestius, Toxeus and Plexippus, by the hand of their nephew Meleager: Oeneus was the father of Meleager, whom he too had now lost. The words are those of some one who is consoling Althea, Oeneus' wife, and perhaps belong (says Victorius) to Oeneus himself. The meaning then would be, (Oeneus to his wife,) You speak of the losses of your father whose sons are slain—are not mine as great as his, in the loss of my famous son Meleager? and do we not therefore equally deserve pity? The story is told in Diod. Sic. IV 34 (Schrader), and Ov. Met. VIII. See 86, 87, An felix Oeneus nato victore fruetur, Thestius orbus erit? melius lugebitis ambo.

The conduct of Alexander or Paris in the abduction of Helen is next justified by the parallel case of Theseus, who did the same; Isocr. Helen. §§ 18—20; and every one—and more especially an Athenian audience—must allow that he was a good man and could do no wrong (οὐκ ἠδίκησεν); and of the Tyndaridae, Castor and Pollux, who carried off the two daughters of Leucippus, Phoebe and Eleaera (or Hilaira, Propert. I 2. 15), Ov. Fast. V 699, Theocr. Id. XXII 137, and these were demigods; and if Hector is not blamed for the death of Patroclus, neither should Paris be censured for that of Achilles. This is from some ἐγκώμιον or ἀπολογία Ἀλεξάνδρου, of an unknown rhetorician, similar to Isocrates' Helen. It is referred to again, § 8, and 24 §§ 7, 9.

‘And if no other artists (professors of any art or science) are mean or contemptible, neither are philosophers: and if generals are not to be held cheap because they are often defeated, neither are the sophists (when their sophistical dialectics are at fault)’. From some speech in defence of philosophy, and of the Sophists.

The following is an argument, urged by an Athenian orator upon the general assembly, from the analogy of the relation of a private citizen to the state of which he is a member, to that of the same state as an individual member of the great community of the entire Greek race to the whole of which it is a part: if it be the duty of an individual Athenian to pay attention to, to study, the glory of his own country, then it is the duty of you, the collective Athenians whose representatives I am now addressing, to study in like manner the glory of the entire Greek community. Or it might be used by the epideictic orator in a Panegyric (πανηγυρικός λόγος, delivered in a πανήγυρις), pleading, like Isocrates, for the united action of the Greeks against the Barbarian.

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