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‘The next thing we have to treat of, after what has already been said (c. XXIII. XXIV), is λύσις, the modes of refuting an opponent's arguments’. On the meaning and derivation of λύσις, see Introd. p. 267, note.

‘This solution or refutation may be effected either by a countersyllogism (which concludes the negative of the opponent's thesis or conclusion, the regular ἔλεγχος) or by advancing a (contradictory) instance, or objection (to one of the premisses proving or indicating a false statement)’. The conclusion must be refuted by a counter-syllogism. Comp. on these two, c. 26. 3, 4.

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