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‘Further (men are brought to a calm or placid state of mind) by lapse of time when they are no longer fresh in their anger (when their anger is no longer fresh); for time brings anger to an end’.

χρονίζειν is ‘to pass’ or ‘spend time’, κεχρονικότες, men that have ‘already passed some time’, since the angry fit came on. For examples of the use of the word see the Lexx. ὑπόγυιοι, ‘fresh, recent’, of things still under the hand of the workman. See note on I 1. 7.

Gaisford quotes in illustration of the topic, Thucyd. III 38, (Cleon) θαυμάζω μὲν τῶν προθέντων αὖθις περὶ Μυτιληναίων λέγειν, καὶ χρόνου διατριβὴν ἐμποιησάντων ἐστι πρὸς τῶν ἠδικηκότων μᾶλλον. γὰρ παθὼν τῷ δράσαντι ἀμβλυτέρᾳ τῇ ὀργῇ ἐπεξέρχεται. And Eustath. ad Il. Ω, p. 1342. 46, διὰ μέσου καιρὸς μαλάττει τὴν ἐν τοῖς θυμουμένοις σκληρότητα, ὥστε ἀληθεύειν τὸν εἰπόντα ὅτι (Soph. Electr. 179) χρόνος εὐμαρὴς θεός. Virg. Aen. V 781, Iunonis gravis ira, nec exsaturabile pectus, quam nec longa dies pietas nec mitigat ulla (Victorius), describes the implacability, the lasting nature, of Juno's anger, which is the direct opposite of πραότης. This is πικρότης: οἱ δὲ πικροὶ δυσδιάλυτοι καὶ πολὺν χρόνον ὀργίζονται, Eth. N. IV 11, 1126 a 20: likewise κότος, rancorous, vindictive wrath, said of one who πέττει τὴν ὀργήν, (nurses his wrath to keep it warm. Burns,) Ib. line 25. And opposed to these are the ὀργίλοι (irascible), ὀξεῖς, ἀκρόχολοι, (ita Bekk.) Ib. line 18; these ταχέως ὀργίζονται and παύονται ταχέως, lines 13, 15.

‘And again a more violent animosity conceived against one person is appeased by punishment previously exacted from another (who may not have excited it so strongly): and therefore the saying of Philocrates was to the point, when some one asked at a time of popular excitement against him, ‘why do not you defend yourself?’ ‘No, not yet’, he replied. ‘Well, but when?’ ‘As soon as I have seen some one else under accusation’, (or ‘under a similar suspicion’: διαβάλλειν, ‘to set two people at variance’, being specially applied to ‘calumny’). ‘For men recover their calmness and evenness of temper, as soon as they have expended their anger upon another object’. So Eth. N., u. s., 1126 a 21, παῦλα δὲ γίνεται ὅραν ἀνταποδιδῶ: γὰρ τιμωρία παύει τῆς ὀργῆς, ἡδονὴν ἀντὶ τῆς λύπης ἐμποιοῦσα. “Tanta enim est primi impetus in ira vis, ut cupiditatem fere omnem effundat.” Schrader. He also cites from Plutarch's Life of Alexander the case of Alexander the Great, who expended his anger against the Greeks on the destruction of Thebes, and afterwards spared Athens. Victorius supplies a very pertinent passage from Lysias, Or. XIX ὑπὲρ τῶν Ἀριστοφάνους χρημάτων §§ 5, 6, ἀκούω γὰρ ἔγωγε...ὅτι πάντων δεινότατόν ἐστι διαβολή: μάλιστα δὲ τοῦτο ἔχοι ἄν τις δεινότατον, ὅταν πολλοὶ ἐπὶ τῇ αὐτῇ αἰτίᾳ εἰς ἀγῶνα καταστῶσιν: ὡς γὰρ ἐπὶ τὸ πολὺ οἱ τελευταῖοι κρινόμενοι σώζονται: πεπαυμένοι γὰρ ὀργῆς αὐτῶν ἀκροᾶσθε, καὶ τοὺς ἐλέγχους ἤδη ἐθέλοντες ἀποδέχεσθε.

On Philocrates, of the Attic deme Hagnus (Ἁγνούσιος), a contemporary and political rival of Demosthenes, see two columns of references from the Orators, chiefly Demosthenes and Aeschines, in Baiter and Sauppe's excellent Index nominum, appended to their edition of the Greek Orators, III 137 seq. [See also Arnold Schaefer's Demosthenes und seine Zeit, II 345 and elsewhere. S.]

‘As happened in the case of Ergophilus; for though they (the Athenian assembly) were more indignant with him than with Callisthenes, they let him off, because they had condemned Callisthenes to death the day before’. Callisthenes and Ergophilus were both of them Athenian generals commanding in the Chersonese, B. C. 362. See Grote, Hist. of Gr. X 508, 511, and the references in Baiter and Sauppe, u. s. pp. 45 and 73 [also A. Schaefer, Demosthenes, I 134]. The former is to be distinguished from Callisthenes the contemporary Orator. Of Ergophilus, Demosthenes says, de Fals. Leg. § 180, καὶ ὅσοι διὰ ταῦτ̓ (corruption and treachery in the exercise of military command) ἀπολώλασι παρ᾽ ὑμῖν, οἱ δὲ χρήματα πάμπολλ̓ ὠφλήκασιν οὐ χαλεπὸν δεῖξαι, Ἐργόφιλος, Κηφισόδοτος, Τιμόμαχος, κ.τ.λ. To reconcile this passage with that of Aristotle, we must suppose that Ergophilus was one of those that were fined, but acquitted on the capital charge; which is not quite accurately expressed by ἀφεῖσαν: or possibly the two cases may be distinct.

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