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Consequently also, the following classes of persons are not liable to fear. ‘Exempt from (not liable to) the expectation of probable suffering are those who are, or think they are, in a condition of great prosperity’, (the plural of the abstract noun indicates the various items or kinds of success, prosperity, or good luck, represented by εὐτυχία,) ‘and therefore they are insolent (inclined to wanton outrage) and contemptuous (prone to slight —contemptuously indifferent to—the opinions and feelings of others) and audacious or rash—men are made such by, (such characters are due to), wealth, bodily strength, abundance of friends, power—and (on the other hand) those who think that they have already endured all the worst extremities (all that is to be dreaded, πάντα τὰ δεινὰ) and have been thus cooled down (frozen, their sensibilities blunted, all the animal heat, and its accompanying sensibility, has been evaporated) (to apathy and indifference) as respects the future (possibility of suffering) like those who are already under the hands of the executioner (ἤδη, in the very act of undergoing the sentence of death); but (that fear may be felt) there must be at the bottom’ (of Pandora's box, as a residuum; or underlying, as a basis or ground of confidence, ὑπεῖναι,) ‘a lurking hope of salvation remaining, (περὶ οὗ about which is concerned) to prompt the anguish’ (of the mental struggle, ἀγών, implied in fear). Romeo and Juliet, V I. 68, Art thou so base and full of wretchedness, and fear'st to die? and foll. King Lear, IV I. 3, To be worst, The lowest and most dejected thing of fortune......lives not in fear. ἀποτυμπανιζόμενοι] τυμπανίζειν denotes a punishment—often capital, as it is here—of somewhat uncertain signification. It is generally understood to mean flogging or beating, sometimes to death, with cudgels; so much is certain; and the τύμπανον, the drum, or instrument made to resemble it, probably served as the block. So Alford explains it, note on Ep. to Hebr. xi. 35, q. v. “an instrument like a wheel or drumhead on which the victim was stretched and scourged to death.” (It was not scourging, but beating to death with sticks). It is sometimes called τροχός, Schol. ad Arist. Plut. 476, ὦ τύμπανα καὶ κύφωνες: τύμπανα ξύλα ἐφ᾽ οἷς ἐτυμπάνιζον: ἐχρῶντο γὰρ ταύτῃ τῇ τιμωρίᾳ. “Non infrequens verbum” (ἀποτυμπανίζειν: it is common only in Plutarch; Wyttenbach supplies several instances; and it appears in the Septuagint, Maccab. III 3. 27, IV 5. 32, 9.20, where the instrument is called τροχός, in the Epist. to the Hebrews, l.c., and in Josephus) “nec tamen eadem ac diserta significatione; nam universe est verberare, ut τυμπανίζειν, sed addita praepositio adfert notionem ad finem verberare; quod est vel eiusmodi ut verberatus inter verbera moriatur, fustuarium: vel ut vivus dimittatur, quae fustigatio quibusdam dicitur:” and then follow some examples. Wyttenbach, ad Plut. Mor. 170 A de Superst., item ad 60 A. Hesych. τυμπανίζεται, ἰσχυρῶς τύπτεται. τύμπανον, εἶδος τιμωρίας. Phot. Lex. τύμπανον, τὸ τοῦ δημίου ξύλον, ᾧ τοὺς παραδιδομένους διεχείριζετο. Comp. Bretschneider, Lex. Nov. Test. s. v. ἀπο-τυμπανίζειν, as Wyttenbach observes, denotes the fatal character of the beating, ἀπό ‘off’; that the punishment was ‘finished off’, ‘brought to an end’. So ἀπεργάζεσθαι ‘to complete a work’, ἀποτελεῖν, ἀποκάμνειν, ἀπομάχεσθαι (‘to fight it out’, Lysias, πρὸς Σίμωνα § 25), ἀποπειρᾶσθαι, ἀποτολμᾷν, ἀποθνήσκειν (to die off, die away), ἀποκναίειν (grate away), ἀποτρίβειν (rub away, to an end), ἀπόλλυσθαι and ἀπολλύναι. The same notion of carrying out, or completion, is conveyed by ἐκ in composition, as ἐκτελεῖν, ἐζικέσθαι, ἐκβαίνειν, and others; the difference between the two prepositions being, that ἀπό is ‘from a surface’, ‘off’, ἐκ is ‘from the inside’, ‘out of’, ‘out’. The verb ἀποτυμπανίζειν in this form denotes the aggravation of an ordinary beating; and corresponds to the Roman fustuarium, which is confined to capital punishment by beating with sticks for desertion in the Roman army; Cic. Phil. III 6, Liv. V 6 ult. Fustuarium meretur qui signa deserit aut praesidio recedit; and is opposed, in its severity and fatal termination, to the ordinary flagellatio or verbera. The verb is found in Lysias, κατ᾽ Ἀγοράτου, § 56, (Ἀγόρατον) τῷ δημίῳ παρέδοτε, καὶ ἀπετυμπανίσθη, 57 and 58. Demosth. Phil. Γ 126. 19, ἀντὶ τοῦ τῷ μὲν βοηθεῖν τοὺς δὲ ἀποτυμπανίσαι. Rhet. II 6. 27. σημεῖον δὲ—οὐδεὶς βουλεύεται περὶ τῶν ἀνελπίστων] ‘an indication’ (a sign, not an absolute proof, or conclusive sign, ἀπόδειξις or τεκμήριον) ‘of this is, that fear inclines men to deliberation, and yet no one deliberates about things that are hopeless’, or beyond the sphere of expectation. On the objects of βούλευσις, see Eth. Nic. III 5. We do not deliberate about things eternal and unchangeable; or about the constant motions of the heavens, or of the processes of nature; or about things that are constantly varying; or about things accidental and due to chance. We deliberate only about things which concern ourselves and human affairs in general, and of these only such as are in our own power, in which the event can be controlled by our own agency: and this is repeated throughout the chapter. Comp. VI 2, 1130 a 13, οὐθεὶς δὲ βουλεύεται περὶ τῶν μὴ ἐνδεχομένων ἄλλως ἔχειν, things necessary and invariable; over which therefore we have no control. It is plain therefore that these things which we do not deliberate about are ἀνελπιστα; they are beyond our knowledge and control, and cannot therefore be the objects of future expectation.
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