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‘And besides all these, the want (absence) of any of these estimable things of which all our peers, or most of them, have a share. By ‘peers’ I mean clansmen (members of the same race or tribe), fellow-citizens, equals in age, relatives, or, in general terms, those who are on an equality (on a level) with us; for now (that we have reached this stage, not perhaps before), it is shameful not to participate in advantages, such as education, or anything else in the same way, to so high a degree as they do. And all these disadvantages are still more disgraceful if they appear to be due to ourselves, and our own fault; for by this it does appear that they result rather from (internal) vice’ (of character, the bad προαίρεσις which stamps them with the vicious character), ‘if we ourselves be to blame for the introduction (pre-existence), the actual (present) existence, or future growth of them’.

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