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‘And the endurance, present, past, or future (in the anticipation) of any such things as tend to dishonour and reproach, men are ashamed of; and these are all acts of service or subservience of person or shameful deeds, under which head comes wanton outrage’ (meaning here that particular kind of ὕβρις which lies in an outrage on or violation of the person; ὑπηρετεῖν is equivalent to χαρίζεσθαι, sui copiam facere, the surrender of the person to the service or gratification of another).

τὰ εἰς ἀκολασίαν] sc. φέροντα, συντείνοντα; quae spectant ad incontinentiam. ‘Turpe est ea pati quae ab intemperantia alterius proficiscuntur’. Schrader. ‘And of these, all that have a tendency or reference to (all that subserve) licentiousness (the reckless and indiscriminate indulgence of the appetites) are disgraceful, whether voluntary or involuntary; the involuntary being such as are done under compulsion (forza maggiore; (even these are disgraceful) because the submission to, tame endurance of, them, and the non-resistance (not defending oneself against the violence), proceed from unmanliness or cowardice’. Inordinary cases, compulsion, any superior external force which cannot be controlled, absolves a man from responsibility for his actions—Eth. Nic. III 1, on the voluntary and involuntary—but in these cases if the force be not absolutely overwhelming he is bound to offer all the resistance in his power: to refrain from this shews cowardice or an unmanly spirit, and therefore such acts are still disgraceful, though not for the same reason as the voluntary. τὰ δ᾽ εἰς βίαν ἄκοντα is added as an explanatory note to ἄκοντα: it interrupts the reasoning, and should therefore be separated from the context by some mark of a parenthesis.

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