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‘To praise a man to his face is flattery’ (subaudi σημεῖον)—Terent. Adelph. II 4. 6, Ah vereor coram in os te laudare amplius, ne id assentandi magis quam quod gratum habeam facere existimes (Victorius)—‘as is also overpraising a man's good qualities, and disguising (by smearing over and so obscuring, as a writing, or blotting out) all his bad points (all his peccadilloes and weaknesses); and excessive sympathy with his distress (exhibited) in his presence, and everything else of the same kind; for they are all signs of flattery’. οἱ ταπεινοὶ κόλακες, Eth. N. IV 8, 1125 a 2, Ib. VIII 9, 1159 a 14, ὑπερεχόμενος γὰρ φίλος κόλαξ, προσποιεῖται τοιοῦτος εἶναι καὶ μᾶλλον φιλεῖν φιλεῖσθαι. A distinction is taken between ἄρεσκος and κόλαξ in Eth. Nic. IV 12, sub fin., which is here disregarded. The ἄρεσκος, the ‘over-complaisant’, is what we usually understand by κόλαξ or flatterer; but κόλαξ is here confined to interested flattery; εἰς χρήματα καὶ ὅσα διὰ χρημάτων, and is in fact equivalent to the ordinary παράσιτος. Theophrastus, Char. β́, έ, maintains the distinction. One of the characteristics of κολακεία is καὶ ἐπαινέσαι δὲ ἀκούοντος: this appears also in the ἄρεσκος, Ch. έ.

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