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‘The evils which are due to chance (accident or fortune) are the entire lack, or scarcity, of friends—and therefore also to be severed’ (parted, divorced, torn away, divelli, distrahi, ab aliquo, Cicero,) ‘from friends and familiars is pitiable—personal ugliness or deformity, weakness of body, mutilation’ (or any maimed crippled condition of body, which prevents a man from taking an active part in the service of the state, and discharging his duties as a citizen). The three last of the evils mentioned, αἶσχος, ἀσθένεια, ἀναπηρία, occur again, as Victorius notes (without the reference, which is also omitted by Gaisford who quotes him), Eth. N. III 7, 1114 a 22, seq., in a passage (which will serve as a partial commentary on the text of the Rhetoric) in which the distinction is drawn between defects and injuries bodily and mental as misfortunes, due to nature or accident, and the same when we have brought them on ourselves by carelessness or vice. Thus αἰσχρότης or αἶσχος may be due to nature, διὰ φύσιν, or to the neglect of athletic exercises, ἀγυμνασίαν, or carelessness in general, ἀμέλειαν: in the former case it is the object not of censure but of pity; in the latter it is to be blamed. The same may be said of ἀσθένεια, and πήρωσις, the equivalent of ἀναπηρία in the Rhetoric; the instance of the mutilation or crippled condition there given is blindness; ‘no one would reproach a man blinded either by nature or disease or a blow, but would rather pity him; but if the blindness proceeded from drunkenness or any other form of licentiousness every one would condemn it’. We have here the necessary qualification supplied which limits and distinguishes the cases in which ugliness, weakness and mutilation are really pitiable. ‘And when an ill result follows from what might naturally have been expected to lead to good’, i. e. when in any enterprise or course of action, we have done everything that seemed likely to ensure success, and yet fail (or ‘come to grief’) in spite of all our endeavours, this again is a misfortune, or piece of ill-luck: ‘and the frequent repetition of accidents of this kind’. With ἀγαθόν τι πρᾶξαι comp. χρηστόν τι πράττων, Arist. Plut. 341. Victorius refers in illustration of this disappointed expectation to Ariadne's complaint in Catullus, Epith. Pel. et Thet. 139, certe ego te in medio versantem turbine leti eripui, et seq.
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