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‘But it may be thought that envy as well (as νέμεσις, καί) is opposed in the same way to pity, on the ground that it is very closely connected, or indeed identical, with righteous indignation, though it is in fact different; for though it be true that envy is also (καί as before) a pain causing perturbation of mind and directed against good fortune, yet the good fortune is not that of the undeserving, but that of an equal and one like himself’. Compare with this Poet. XIII 1453 a 4, of pity and fear, μὲν γὰρ περὶ τὸν ἀνάξιόν ἐστι δυστυχοῦντα, δὲ περὶ τὸν ὅμοιον, ἔλεος μὲν περὶ τὸν ἀνάξιον, φόβος δὲ περὶ τὸν ὅμοιον. With ἀλλὰ τοῦ ἴσου καὶ ὁμοίου comp. c. 10 § 1, φθόνος, λύπη περὶ τοὺς ὁμοίους.

‘The absence of all selfish, interested motive, distinct from (independent of) the feelings themselves, (and their direct objects, supply τῶν παθῶν,) these emotions, on the contrary (ἀλλά), being entirely on our neighbour's account, must be common to them all (common to all men who have the feeling); for they are now no longer the one righteous indignation and the other envy, but (both of them) fear—on the supposition namely that the pain and perturbation are due to the expectation that some evil consequence to ourselves will follow from the other's good fortune.’

τὸ μὴ ὅτι κ.τ.λ.] The grammar of this sentence is to be explained by regarding all the words ὅτι αὐτῷτὸν πλήσιον as one collective abstract notion, which would be commonly expressed by a verb in the infinitive mood, and therefore neut., τό; this notion being negatived by μή ‘the non-existence, want, absence of it’. The usage is by no means uncommon, but occurs generally in much shorter phrases, from which this differs only in the number of words included. Matth., Gr. Gr. § 272 c, and Jelf, Gr. Gr. § 457. 1, 2, 3, will supply sufficient examples. Aristotle's formula descriptive of the λόγος or εἶδος ‘the formal cause’, τὸ τί ἦν εἶναι, ‘the—what it was (designed) to be’, is a good illustration.

οὐ γὰρ ἔτι] On ἔτι in a negative=ἤδη in an affirmative sentence, see note on ἤδη, I 1. 7.

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