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commences with a partial repetition of the concluding summary of the preceding chapter. The three modes of proof are enumerated, πίστεις, ἦθος, πάθος: (1) the direct logical proof, by argument; (2) the con veying a favourable impression by the exhibition of character in and by the speech; and (3), working on the feelings of the audience, so as to bring them to that state of mind which is favourable to the orator's purpose; to excite an angry or a calm temper, love or hatred, envy, jealousy, righteous indignation, and so on, according to circumstances and the immediate occasion.

‘The enthymemes too have been stated, whence they are to be supplied; for of enthymemes there are special (εἴδη) as well as common topics (τόποι)’. See the quotation from Spengel's Study of Ancient Rhetoric prefixed to II 23.

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