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‘Of the speech there are (only) two parts: for it is only necessary first to state the subject, and then to prove (your side of) it. It follows from this necessary relation between them (διό), that it is impossible (if the speech is to be complete) either to state your case without going on to prove it, or to prove it without having first stated it’, (the impossibility lies in the absurdity of the supposition: it is a moral impossibility): ‘for proving implies something to prove, and a preliminary statement is made in order to be proved’. All this implies that the speaker has some object in view, some case to make out. It would not apply to all declamations; though it is true that, as a general rule, even they try to prove something, however absurd it may be.

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