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‘Now these two are peculiar to, and characteristic of, speeches in general’. It is possible that ἴδιον here may be the proprium of logic, one of the predicables: that which characterizes a thing, without being absolutely essential to it, as the genus and differentia are. The proprium is a necessary accident or property, though it is not of the essence itself: “but flowing from, or a consequence of, the essence, is inseparably attached to the species” (J. S. Mill, Logic, I p. 148). All this would apply very well to these two parts. They are not of the essence of the speech, and do not enter into the definition: the speech could exist without them. At the same time they are immediate consequences of that essence, and inseparably attached to all species of speeches, according to the view put forward here. We might therefore be satisfied with these. ‘If we add more’ (following the authorities on the subject), ‘they must be at the most, preface, statement of case, confirmatory arguments, conclusion: for the refutation of the adversary belongs to the proofs’ (Quint. u.s. III 9. 5, Tamen nec iis assentior qui detrahunt refutationem, tanquam probationi subiectam, ut Aristoteles; haec enim est quae constituat, illa quae destruat), ‘and counter-comparison, (a comparative statement of your own views and arguments placed in juxtaposition with them to bring them into contrast,) which, being as it is a magnifying (making the most) of one's own case, must be a part of the confirmatory arguments, or general proof: for one who does this proves something: but not so the prologue; nor the epilogue, which merely recalls to mind’.
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