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‘The exordia of the public oration are borrowed from those of the forensic speech, but are naturally very rare in it: for in fact the subject of it is one with which they are already well acquainted, and therefore the facts of the case require no preface (no preparatory explanation) except—if at all—on his own account or that of the adversary (δἰ αὐτόν to put himself right with the audience, the ἦθος ἐν τῷ λέγοντι; τοὺς ἀντιλέγοντας to meet the adversary's charges, combat the prejudices the other has raised against him: both of these therefore are accidental), or in case the subject (this is essential) is not considered by them of the precise degree of importance which you wish, but rated either too high or too low.’ As to τοὺς ἀντιλέγοντας, we had been told before, c. 13. 3, προοίμιον δὲ...ἐν ταῖς δημηγορίαις τότε γίνεται ὅταν ἀντιλογία : as in Demosth. de Corona, and de Falsa Legatione. Comp. Quint. III 8. 8, who borrows this from Aristotle, Aristoteles quidem nec sine causa putat et a nostra, et ab eius qui dissentiet persona, duci frequenter in consiliis exordium, quasi mutuantibus hoc nobis a iudiciali genere; nonnunquam etiam ut minor res maiorve videatur: in demonstrativis vero prooemia esse maxime libera existimat.

‘And hence the necessity of either raising or doing away with prejudice (διό, because when there is an adversary, as there always is in dicastic practice, the same treatment in deliberative speaking is necessarily required) and (the topics) of amplification and diminution (to meet the other requirement, ἐὰν μὴ ἡλικὸν βούλει, ὑπολοιπόν, κ.τ.λ.)’

On the κοινός τόπος (or τόποι) αὔξησις and μείωσις, see II 26. 1. Ib. 18. 4.

‘These are the circumstances in which a preface is required (δεῖται, λόγος, or λέγων); either these, or for mere ornament's sake, because, without it, the speech has an off-hand, slovenly (impromptu, extemporaneous) air (note on III 7. 1). For such is Gorgias' encomium on the Eleans; without any preliminary sparring (flourish) or preparatory stirring up he starts abruptly (rushes at once, in medias res; without any previous warning or preparation) with “Elis, blessed city.”

τὸ Γοργίου ἐγκώμιον εἰς Ἠλ.] Sauppe, Or. Att. Fragm., Fragm. Gorg. No. IV. Nothing more is known of the speech.

προεξαγκωνίσας] is a metaphor from boxing, and denotes a preliminary exercise of the boxer, a swinging, and thrusting to and fro of the arms (lit. elbows), as a preparation for the actual blow, “ex athletarum disciplina ... qui bracchiis sublatis et vibratis pugnae proludunt (I think this is not quite exact: the exercise is not so much to prepare for the encounter with the antagonist, though this of course may be included, as to give weight and impetus to the actual blow). Hinc ab Ar. ad oratorem traductum, qui prooemio quodam utitur priusquam ad rem ipsam deveniat.” Spanheim ad Callim. Hymn. Del. line 322. This word is a ἅπαξ λεγόμενον.

προανακινεῖν expresses much the same thing by a different metaphor; the rousing, stirring up, excitement of emotion or interest, as a preparation (πρό) for what is to follow. This is illustrated by Plato, Legg. IV 722 D, λόγων πάντων καὶ ὅσων φωνὴ κεκοινώνηκε προοίμιά τ᾽ ἔστι καὶ σχεδὸν οἷόν τινες ἀνακινήσεις, ἔχουσαί τινα ἔντεχνον ἐπιχείρησιν χρήσιμον πρὸς τὸ μέλλον περαίνεσθαι. Ib. VII 789 C, of the inspiriting, animating, exciting process—‘quo validiores atque animosiores ad certamina fierent,’ Stallbaum ad locum—which is the object of the training of fighting cocks and quails, (πόνους) ἐν οἷς αὐτὰ ἀνακινοῦσι γυμνάζοντες. Meno, 85 C, ὥσπερ ὄναρ ἀνακεκίνηνται αἱ δόξαι αὗται. Comp. Plut. Cato Mai. c. 26, ἤδη δὲ καὶ προανακινεῖσθαι τοῖς Νομαδικοῖς (Numidae) τοὺς πρὸς Ῥωμαίους ἀγῶνας, here literally, in the primary sense, the Numidians were already making preparations to stir up, &c. Ib. π. τοῦ πρώτου ψυχροῦ, c. 9, 948 C, τὰ αἰσθητὰ ταυτὶ προανακινῆσαι, to stir up, by a preparatory examination or study, these sensible elements (of Empedocles &c.)—from all which it seems to me certain that Victorius is incorrect in interpreting this in the same way as the preceding metaphor, “brachia manusque commovere et concutere.” Ernesti, Lex. Techn. Gr. s. v., proludere prooemio quodam, throws no light upon the matter.

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