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‘Further, besides the ἦθος, topics may be also derived from the expression of emotion of various kinds, by introducing in your narration both the usual accompaniments of these emotions (the outward expressions, attitudes, and other external indications), which everybody is acquainted with, and also any special peculiarities by which you yourself or the adversary may be distinguished (which may be attached to, belong to, προσόντα）’. These special touches and traits in the expression of individual emotion will lend a lifelike character to the descriptions of your narrative, and impart fidelity to your own impersonations of feelings, and your representation of them as they manifest themselves in others. How true and lifelike all that is, the audience will say: that can be no counterfeit: the man is evidently in earnest. Again, the same popular fallacy as before; the illicit inference from the faithfulness of the imitation to the sincerity of the feeling and truth of the fact. ‘Such indications are “and he went away with a scowl at me from under his eyebrows” (so ταυρηδὸν ὑποβλέψας of ‘an angry glance’, Pl. Phaed. 117 B; three other examples in Ast's Lex., where it is joined in the same sense with ὡς καταφρονοῦντα, Symp. 220 B, ὥσπερ τι ἀδικούμενος, Eryx. 395 A, ὑποβλέψονται σε διαφθορέα ἡγούμενοι, Crit. 53 B. ὑπό represents an ‘under-look’. Comp. the Homeric ὕποδρα ἰδών): ‘and as Aeschines says of Cratylus “furiously hissing and shaking his fists”’ (διά in both participles is intensive, ‘thorough, thoroughly’; here ‘violently’: Aeschines and Cratylus are supposed by Victorius to be, the one Socrates' intimate, the other Plato's instructor in the Heraclitean philosophy, and the Eponymus of one of his dialogues: but nobody really knows): ‘these are persuasive, because these things (indications of passion) which they do know are made (by the speaker) signs or tokens of those that they don't know (in the manner above explained). A great number of these (indications of feeling) may be obtained from Homer: “Thus then he spake; and the aged dame (Euryclea, Ulysses' old nurse) held fast (clasped) her face with her hands” (Hom. Od. τ́ [XIX] 361)—for people, when they are beginning to cry, are apt to lay hold of their eyes. Introduce yourself at once (to the audience) in a particular character (in that, namely, which you wish to bear in their eyes) that they may regard you as such: and the adversary in the same way (mutatis mutandis): only take care that the design isn't detected. That there is no difficulty in this—in conveying these impressions to the audience, how readily they seize, and draw inferences from, these indications of emotion, expression of features, action and the like—must needs be seen’ (retaining δεῖ with Bekker, Spengel omits it) ‘from the case of messengers: of things that we know nothing whatever about, we nevertheless (instantly) conceive a notion or suspicion’ (from the face, expression, gestures, general appearance of the messenger; as if he is hot and tired, and so on). See what a ready tongue suspicion hath! He that but fears the thing he would not know, hath by instinct knowledge from others' eyes, that what he feared is chanced. Northumb. Henry IV. Act I, Sc. I, 84. Victorius refers to Soph. Trach. 869 (Dind.) as an instance of this, the suspicions of the Chorus gathered from the old woman's face. ‘The narrative should be (not confined to one place and continuous, but) distributed over the speech (πολλαχοῦ ‘in many places’), and sometimes not at the beginning’. In saying οὐκ ἐν ἀρχῇ, Ar. is referring to his own division of the speech, which excludes the προοίμιον and commences at once with the πρόθεσις, c. 13. The narrative, he says, should sometimes even be entirely out of its proper place, which is at the beginning.
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