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‘Faults of taste are shewn (are made to appear; arise, grow) in four points of style or language; first in compound words, instances of which are Lycophron's ‘many-visaged heaven’, his ‘vast-topped earth’, and his ‘narrow-passaged shore’.

On διπλᾶ ὀνόματα, see Introd. p. 287. All the compound words mentioned are words compounded of two significant elements, ὀνόματα σημαίνοντα, Poet. XXI. 1, 2, i.e. of words which have an independent sense of their own; opposed to such as are only significant in combination with others, as prepositions, conjunctions, particles.

πολυπρόσωπον οὐρανόν] “quod plurimam variamque faciem habeat ob sidera ipsa, nisi fallor.” Victorius. Compare Plato's famous epigram: ἀστέρας εἰσαθρεῖς ἀστὴρ ἐμός: εἴθε γενοίμην οὐρανός, ὡς πολλοῖς ὄμμασιν εἴς σε βλέπω. Anthol. Πλάτωνος, I (Vol. I. p. 102, ed. Jac.), Bergk, Plat. Epigr. 14, Lyr. Gr. p. 445. [Anthol. Gr. VII 669].

μεγαλοκορίφου] κορυφή is a mountain-top. To one who lived in Greece and knew nothing beyond it, the Earth might well seem to be covered with vast summits.

ἀκτὴν στενοπόρον] also belongs to the mountainous character of Greece. The cliffs come down precipitously to the very edge of the sea (in which there are no tides), leaving but a narrow passage for horseman or foot-passenger. The word is used appropriately enough by the poet Aeschylus, P. V. 729, and Eur. Iph. Aul. 1497; also by Herod. VII 211.

[Blass, in his brief notice of Lycophron, die Attische Beredsamkeit, II p. 235, while conjecturing that several of the phrases here quoted must have come from a panegyric in glorification of Athens and her heroes, and of Theseus in particular, is led by the Sophist's application of πέλωρον ἄνδρα to Xerxes in § 2, to refer ἀκτὴν στενοπόρον to the Hellespont. It would be more reasonable, however, to take the hint supplied by his allusion to Sciron in the same section, and explain it of the narrow path which runs like a cornice along the precipitous sides of the cliffs of Sciron on the coast of Megara (Eur. Hippol. 1208, Σκείρωνος ἀκτάς, Strabo IX p. 391, αἱ Σκειρωνίδες πέτραι πάροδον οὐκ ἀπολείπονται πρὸς θαλάττη: ὑπὲρ αὐτῶν δ᾽ ἐστὶν ὁδὸς ἐπὶ Μεγάρων, and Pausanias I 44 § 6 (Bekker), τὴν ὀνομαζομένην ἀπὸ Σκίρωνος (ὀδὸν) Σκίρων πρῶτος ἐποίησεν ἀνδράσιν ὁδεύειν εὐζώνοις. Hadrian (as Pausanias adds) made this narrow ledge εὐρυχωρῆ, but the cliff and its pathway have since once more become an ἀκτὴ στενοπόρος, which is described by Leake (Northern Greece, II 414) as ‘only practicable by foot-passengers’.]

On Lycophron the Sophist, see Camb. Journ. of Classical and Sacred Phil. No. v, Vol. II. p. 141 seq. Not to be confounded with Lycophron the tragic poet, the author of Cassandra, who lived at Alexandria in the reign of Ptolemy Philadelphus, towards the middle of the third cent. B.C.

‘And the name given by Gorgias, “beggar-witted or pauper-witted flatterer”’. πτωχόμουσος κόλαξ, as Victorius understands it, inops ingenium. Or perhaps rather one who prostitutes his literature and intellectual accomplishments to flattery and sycophancy to make a living by them, ‘making his Muse a beggar.’ [“This can hardly mean ‘arm an dichterischer Begabung,’ as Rost and Palm explain. Liddell and Scott give with greater probability “living (or rather starving) by his wits.” It might also mean, “one whom poverty inspires” (cui ingeni largitor Venter). Wit and poverty are the hackneyed attributes of the Greek parasite, and in a comic poet the epithet would probably have been thought happy. A similar compound, πτωχαλάζων, is quoted from Phrynichus com. (Meineke, C. G. II p. 582).” Thompson's ed. of the Gorgias, p. 179 note.]

ἐπιορκήσαντας καὶ κατευορκήσαντας] ‘forsworn, and oath-observing’. The objection here is to κατευορκήσαντας, in which the κατά is superfluous. All that Gorgias meant might have been equally well expressed by the simple εὐορκεῖν ‘to keep one's oath’; or rather the simple opposition of false and true, which he has exaggerated into two long words. εὐορκεῖν, though itself a compound, seems to be regarded here as a single word. The Schol. has on this, καὶ τὸ κατευορκῆσαι λέγεται ἐπὶ ἀληθῶς ὀμόσαντος: οὐχ ἁρμόζει δὲ λέξις αὕτη ῥηθῆναι ἐπὶ τοῦ ἁπλῶς εἰπόντος τὸ ἀληθές, οἷον ὅτι ὑπὲρ γῆν ὄντος τοῦ ἡλίου ἡμέρα ἐστίν, i. e. this is like expounding ‘it is day’ into the longer and more pompous phrase ‘the sun is above the earth.’

μένους μὲν τὴν ψυχὴν πληρουμένην πυρίχρων δὲ τὴν ὄψιν γιγνομένην] ‘And Alcidamas' phrases, “His soul saturated with wrath, and his face growing the colour of fire” (fire-coloured)’. This, as I have noted in the account of him in Camb. Journ. of Cl. and Sacred Phil. No. IX, Vol. III, p. 266, is an exemplification of three of the new figures which Gorgias, his master, had recently introduced into Rhetoric, ἀντίθεσις, παρίσωσις or ἰσόκωλον, and ὁμοιοτέλευτον, on which see Ib. No. VII, III 69—72. The ψυχρόν objected to is of course the διπλοῦν ὄνομα, πυρίχρων [‘flame-flushed’].

‘And “end-fulfilling deemed he would be their zeal”, and “end-fulfilling established he the persuasion of his words”, and “dark-blue-coloured the sea's foundation”. (κυάνεος is indigo blue, also dark in general)—‘for all these have a poetical character arising from (due to) the doubling’.

τελεσφόρος may be translated by Shakespeare's “thought-executing” fires; but that is poetry [King Lear III. 2.4.—τελεσφόρος became commoner in later Greek prose, as remarked by Lobeck, Phrynichus, p. 673 (referred to by Vahlen, der Rhetor Alkidamas, p. 491 infra].

An account of Alcidamas will be found in Camb. Journ. of Cl. and Sacred Phil. No. IX, Vol. III, pp. 263—8 (omit pp. 264, 5, where the proof of a paradox is unnecessarily undertaken). [See also Vahlen, der Rhetor Alkidamas, pp. 491—528 of Transactions of Vienna Academy, XLIII 2, 1863; and Blass, die Attische Beredsamkeit, II pp. 317—335.]

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