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‘And further, the fourth vice of style is shewn in metaphors; for metaphors also are inappropriate, some because they are laughable— for the comic poets also employ metaphors—others from their exaggeration of the stately (solemn) and tragic (pompous) style: if far-fetched, they are obscure’. πόρρωθεν, see on III 2. 12. ‘As Gorgias, “things (πράγματα, actions, occurrences, events, business) all fresh and raw”’. This certainly is a good exemplification of what it is designed to illustrate: it is obscure. It seems, however, to mean nothing more than ‘recent events’, events fresh, and with the blood in them: the metaphor from a beast just killed. It therefore corresponds to πρόσφατος, ‘fresh’, which also stands for ‘recent’. πρόσφατος is specially applied to ‘fresh meat’. See Lobeck On Phrynichus, p. 375, note: examples of πρόσφατος are there given, p. 374. ‘“And these things thou hast sown in disgrace, and reaped in misery”. For it smells too much of poetry’. [Both the extracts probably belong to the same context, and may perhaps be combined by rendering them thus: ‘all was green and unripe (fresh and flushed with sap), and this was the crop that you sowed in shame to reap in ruin’. χλωρὰ καὶ ἔναιμα possibly refer to the green and unripe stalks of corn, with the sap still fresh in them. This assumes that αἷμα can be used metaphorically of ‘sap’, both coming under the generic notion of ‘vital juice’. If so, the metaphor is a sufficiently bold one. Thompson (ed. of the Gorgias, p. 179) notes that ἄναιμα (which is the reading of Q, Y^{b} and Z^{b}) is ‘well supported, and cannot but be right,’ and remarks that while the metaphor of sowing and reaping is a mere commonplace, “pallid and bloodless affairs” would need apology even from a modern.]

A metaphor, nearly resembling the first of these two, occurs in Demetrius περὶ ἑρμηνείας, § 116, γίνεται δὲ καὶ ἐν μεταφορᾷ τὸ ψυχρόν, τρέμοντα καὶ ὠχρὰ τὰ πράγματα. Longinus περὶ ὕψους 3.2, ταύτῃ καὶ τὰ τοῦ Λεοντίνου Γοργίον γελᾶται γράφοντος, “Ξέρξης τῶν Περσῶν Ζεύς.” καὶγύπες ἔμψυχοι τάφοι” [comp. supra I § 9, on the poetical style of Gorgias].

Hermogenes also, περὶ ἰδεῶν Τομ. ά, περὶ σεμνότητος 226 (p. 292, Spengel, Rhetores Graeci, vol. II.) gives some examples of exaggerated metaphors, ἐκνενευρισμένοι, καὶ τὸ πεπρακὼς ἑαυτόν, καὶ τὸ λωποδυτῶν τὴν Ἑλλάδα: and a few lines below, τάφους ἐμψύχους τοὺς γύπας, but without the author's name. The objection to some of these metaphors, as the ‘sowing and reaping’, the ‘selling oneself’, and above all, Alcidamas' ‘mirror of human life’, seems to shew a change of taste from ancient to modern criticism. We certainly should object to none of these; and the ‘mirror’ in particular has become one of the commonest metaphors in our language. The ‘sowing and reaping’ appears in Plato, Phaedr. 260 C (see Thompson's note), and Aesch. Pers. 821. In Cic. de Orat. II 65. 261 (without comment), ut sementem feceris ita metes. I Ep. ad Cor. xv. 42—4. Ep. ad Gal. vi. 7 (and Lightfoot ad loc.). “They that sow in tears shall reap in joy: he that now goeth forth weeping, and beareth forth good seed, shall doubtless come again with joy, and bring his sheaves with him,” Psalm cxxvi. 6, 7. Possibly the antithesis, one of Gorgias' new inventions, may have helped to offend Aristotle's tastes, and it is the effect of the whole phrase, and not of the harmless metaphor alone, that has unconsciously provoked his disapprobation: yet the same occurs in the simple psalm.

[καλὸν ἀνθρωπίνου βίου κάτοπτρον. Alcidamas elsewhere uses this metaphor from a mirror, in the form of a simile, περὶ σοφίστων, § 32, εἰς δὲ τὰ γεγραμμένα κατιδόντας ὥσπερ ἐν κατόπτρῳ θεωρῆσαι τὰς τῆς ψυχῆς ἐπιδόσεις ῥᾴδιόν ἐστιν. The present passage and those already quoted in § 3 τοῖς τῆς ὕλης κλάδοις ἀπέκρυψεν κ.τ.λ. (Odyss. VI 128) and κυανόχρων τὸ τῆς θαλάττης ἔδαφος, probably belong to a declamation on Odysseus (or on the Odyssey); while τελεσφόρον τὴν πειθὼ τῶν λόγων κατέστησεν (§ 1), and πανδήμου χάριτος δημιουργός καὶ οἰκονόμος τῆς τῶν ἀκουόντων ἡδονῆς (§ 3), point with equal probability to a pamphlet on Rhetoric.]

‘And as Alcidamas (follower of Gorgias), (called) philosophy a “fortress to threaten” (a standing menace to), the laws; and the Odyssey a “fair mirror of human life”; and “introducing no such toys, or gawds, in his poetry”—for all such things are subversive of credibility, for the reasons already stated’. These are, that forced metaphors, and all such-like artificial graces and ornaments, make the art and the labour of composition apparent; make the speech appear studied and affected, and therefore premeditated and unreal, and without serious purpose: οὐκ εὖ κλέπτεται: the language of genuine emotion, of earnest and real conviction, which are required for persuasion, being always simple and natural. Probably the most perfect example of art thus disguised by art is to be found in Mark Antony's speeches over Caesar's body in Julius Caesar; and the first thing he does is to impress upon his audience the entire artlessness and unstudied simplicity of his address: I am no orator as Brutus is, but, as you know me all, a plain, blunt man that love my friend, &c [III 2. 221].

ἐπιτείχισμα] in the first extract from Alcidamas, is interpreted in this passage in the Lexicons of Rost and Palm, and Liddell and Scott—in Stephens' Thesaurus it is quoted but not explained—‘a bulwark or defence of the laws’. But ἐπιτείχισμα in its proper literal sense seems to be invariably used of an offensive, not defensive, fortification, to command and annoy an enemy's country, like Decelia, which, τῇ χώρᾳ ἐπῳκεῖτο, Thuc. VII 27. 3 (Bekker, in Thuc. VIII 95, reads τείχισμα for ἐπιτείχισμα, on this account) as indeed is required by the ἐπί with which it is compounded; and philosophy may be used in the attack, as well as the defence, of established laws and institutions, whether it be understood as speculation or scientific research.

‘And Gorgias' address to the swallow, when she discharged her excrement’ [rather, ‘dropped her leavings’] upon him as she flew over, is in the best style of tragic diction, (τὸ δὲ Γ. ἄριστα, sc. εἴρηται,) “For shame, Philomel”, said he. For to a bird it was no disgrace to have done it, but to a young (unmarried) lady it was. And therefore he was right in his reproach to describe (speak of) her as she was, and not as she is'. The simplicity of all this is delightful. I could fancy Aristotle winking to his imaginary reader as he wrote the explanation, ὄρνιθι μὲν γάρ κ.τ.λ., a bird, you know, &c. [The anecdote illustrates the habit of irony ascribed to Gorgias in 7 § 11, infra, μετ᾽ εἰρωνείας ὅπερ Γοργίας ἐποίει, as noticed in Thompson's ed. of the Gorgias, p. 180.]

περίττωμα] in medicine and natural history is ‘a secretion’. It occurs constantly all through Ar.'s writings on Nat. Hist. Plut. Symp. p. 727 D (Victorius), in telling the same story, uses the broad Aristophanic word: Γοργίας δὲ σοφιστὴς χελιδόνος ἀφείσης ἐπ᾽ αὐτὸν ἀπόπατον, ἀναβλέψας πρὸς αὐτήν, οὐ καλὰ ταῦτ̓, εἶπεν, Φιλομήλα.

On the transformation of Procne and Philomela authorities differ. Thucydides, II 29, referring to the story, seems to adopt Gorgias' view, and make Procne the nightingale. Ovid seems to leave the point unsettled, Metaph. VI 667 seq. But tradition in general, and English poetry in particular, have always associated Philomela with the nightingale; e.g. 'Less Philomel will deign a song. Milton's Penseroso, 56.

Victorius notices on this passage that Aristotle includes under the designation of metaphor more than is now recognised as belonging to it. The case here, he says, is a mere hypallage or change of name. Comp. Cic. Orator c. XXVII 93, 94. Hanc ὑπαλλαγήν rhetores, quia quasi summutantur verba pro verbis, μετωνυμίαν grammatici vocant, quod nomina transferuntur. Aristoteles autem tralationi et haec ipsa subiungit, et abusionem quam κατάχρησιν vocant, ut quum minutum dicimus animum pro parvo, et abutimur verbis propinquis, si opus est, vel quod delectat vel quod decet. Comp. Introd., Appendix on Metaphor, pp. 375 and 376.

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