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‘This proportion consists in a style of composition (λέγηται of speaking and writing) such as is neither off-hand (i. e. careless and slovenly, αὐτοκάβδαλος is ‘extemporaneous’) on a dignified, nor stately on a slight and mean (lit. cheap), subject, and has no ornamental epithets (ἐπῇ refers to ἐπίθετα) attached to mean words; otherwise, it (the composition) has the appearance of mere comedy (i. e. laughable; its subject is τὸ γελοῖον: Poet. V. 1, 2), like Cleophon's poetry (tragic poetry: he was a tragedian): for some things that he wrote (said) were like saying (like as though one were to say), “Lady fig”, or “august fig”’.

On propriety in this sense, the adaptation of language to the subject or matter of the speech, spoken or written, comp. Hor. Ars Poet. 86 seq., Cic. de Or. III 55. 212, ut figuram id quod agemus accommodatam deligamus, seq. Orator XXI 70, seq. Quam enim indecorum est de stilicidiis quum apud unum iudicem dicas, amplissimis verbis et locis uti communibus, de maiestate populi Romani summisse et subtiliter! § 72. Quint. VIII 3. 11, Illud observatione dignius, quod hic ipse honestus ornatus pro materiae genere decet variatus, et seq. Clara illa atque sublimia plerumque materiae modo cernenda. Quod alibi magnificum, tumidum alibi. Et quae humilia circa res magnas, apta circa minores videntur. § 18.

εὐόγκων] here refers to the ὄγκος or dignity of style, as applied in c. 6. 1. Elsewhere, as Meteor. IV 2. 6, it is to be interpreted literally of bulk or size, “of a good or fair bulk”: εὐογκότερον καὶ παχύτερον are there equivalent to a preceding παχύτερα. Similarly Eur. Syleus, Fragm. 2 sq. (Dind.), πρόσχημα σεμνὸς κοὐ ταπεινός, οὐδ᾽ ἄγαν εὔογκος (bulky): this is said of Hercules, whom Mercury is selling to Syleus, and like an auctioneer, setting forth all his excellences: several more examples are to be found in Rost and Palm's Lex. The ordinary meaning of the word seems to be ‘of fair, or reasonable, size’.

αὐτοκαβδάλως] extempore, recurs as an adj. αὐτοκάβδαλα III 14. 11 sub fin. cap. It is said to be derived from κάβος (ill-kneaded meal or dough, (Hebr. Kab, translated κάβος in LXX; Rost and Palm's Lex. s. v. κάβος). The αὐτό is ‘self’, as in αὐτοποιητός, αὐτόματος, αὐτογνώμων, αὐθαδής, et sim. Comp. αὐτοσχεδιαστί ‘extempore’, αὐτοσχεδίασμα ‘an impromptu’, Poet. IV 7, αὐτοσχεδιαστική, of tragedy and comedy in their infancy, whilst still ‘extemporaneous’, ib. § 14. αὐτοκάβδαλοι—Semus of Delos, ap. Athen. XIV 16, 622 B—improuisatori. Rost and Palm's Lex. interprets this eine art possenreisser aus dem stegreif, and Liddell and Scott sim. buffoons, buffo-actors. But Athenaeus says of them σχέδην ἐπέραινον ῥήσεις, which is exactly equivalent to αὐτεσχεδίαζον. So σχεδία is ‘a raft’, a vessel extemporised, constructed on the spur of the moment to meet a sudden occasion. And the whole family of these words seems to derive the notion of hasty, off-hand, unpremeditated, unartistic, action or composition, which distinguishes them, from ἔχειν (ἔσχον, σχεῖν) or rather ἔχεσθαι, in the sense of seizing or grasping the first materials that come to hand for a sudden and unforeseen emergency.

αὐτοκαβδάλων in Lucian, Lexiph. § 10 (ed. Hemsterh. II 336), is interpreted, qui farinam ipsi sibi subigunt: with the note, αὐτοκάβδαλον ἄλευρον, τὸ ὡς ἔτυχε φυραθέν. Spengel reads αὐτοκίβδηλον (apparently a vox nihili—at all events a ἅπαξ λεγόμενον, and without meaning here) from MS A^{c} (A). [“Victorius primus αὐτοκαβδάλως scripsit.” Spengel].

κόσμος] This is mentioned as one of the kinds (εἴδη) of poetical and ornamental words, with γλῶττα and μεταφορά, Poet. XXII 7, and again § 19, as an ὄνομα, ἔστι δὲ τὰ τοιαῦτα τὸ κύριον καὶ μεταφορὰ καὶ κόσμος. It is therefore a poetical or ornamental word. ἅπαν δὲ ὄνομά ἐστιν κύριον γλῶττα μεταφορὰ κόσμος πεποιημένον κ.τ.λ., eight in all. Poet. XXI 4. All these are defined seriatim except κόσμος. Twining, in his note on § 17, argues from this that Aristotle could not have intentionally omitted this alone, and that the explanation of κόσμος is one of the many lacunae which had to be supplied in Aristotle's MSS, one of the διαβρώματα—the moth- and worm-eaten passages, as Strabo calls them in his celebrated account of the transmission of Aristotle's manuscripts (XIII. 1). In the Paris MS, indeed, there is a mark of omission which Buhle and Hermann have indicated in their editions. He understands κόσμος to signify “such an epithet as embellishes or elevates the thing to which it is applied.” Though he quotes this passage of the Rhetoric, he does not notice that ἐπῇ here applied to it proves that the kind of ornament intended by κόσμος is an ornamental epithet. See also Gräfenhan, on Poet. XXI 17, p. 159 and on XXIV 9, p. 189, where τοῖς ἐπιθέτοις κόσμοις is quoted from Dionysius de admirabili vi dicendi in Demosthene c. 1, (VI 955. 12, ed. Reiske) and again, de Thuc. Iud. c. 23, p. 864. 2.

Κλεοφῶν] Ἀθηναῖος τραγικός. τῶν δραμάτων αὐτοῦ Ἀκταίων, Ἀμφιάραος, Ἀχιλλεύς, Βάκχαι, Δεξαμενός, Ἠριγόνη, Θυέστης, Λεύκιππος, Περσίς, Τήλεφος, Suidas. He is omitted in Wagner's collection, Fragm. Trag. Gr. vol. III. We learn from Poet. II 5, that his subjects and characters were neither above nor below the level of ordinary, every-day, life and character. To the same effect it is stated in Poet. XXII 1, that his style was low or humble, ταπεινή, and devoid of all poetical ornament. Gräfenhan, ad loc. II 5. Id. ad Poet. XXII 1, “qui humili dictione imitabatur vulgares mores.”

To Suidas' list of 10 tragedies must be added the Μανδρόβουλος, de Soph. El. 15, 174 b 27, οἷον Κλεοφῶν ποιεῖ ἐν τῷ Μανδροβούλῳ, where it is quoted in illustration of a mode of argument.

εἰ εἴπειεν ἄν], That ἄν, which Bekker puts in brackets, may be retained and justified with εἰ and the optative, will be seen by referring to the Appendix (D) on εἰ δύναιτ᾽ ἄν II 20. 5 [Vol. II p. 336].

πότνια] the feminine of πόσις and δεσ-πότ-ης, is a female title of honour, equivalent to δέσποινα, implying reverence and high station, ‘august’. It is best rendered by ‘Lady’. It has two forms, πότνια and πότναὁσία, πότνα θεῶν, Eur. Bacch. 370—and in both the ă is short, and can therefore be elided. There is a good article on the word in Liddell and Scott's Lex. which will supply further information.

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