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‘There are two kinds of paean opposed to one another, of which the one is suitable at the beginning (of the sentence or period), as in fact it is employed: and this is the one which begins with the long (syllable), and ends with three short. Δαλογενὲς εἴτε Λυκίαν, “O Delosborn, or if perchance Lycia” (were thy birthplace). The poet, whose alternative is cut short by the inexorable brevity of the quotation, was doubtless going on, as the manner of the ancient poets is, to offer the deity whom he was addressing the choice of the various titles under which he was known and worshipped, expressive of place of birth, special character or office: which was done to avoid the possibility of giving offence by omitting any title of honour of which he might be specially proud. The following specimens of a very frequent custom will suffice to illustrate it. Hor. Carm. Sec. line 14, Lenis Ilithya... sive tu Lucina probas vocari seu Genitalis. Sat. II 6. 20, Matutine pater, seu Iane libentius audis. [We may also compare Horace's enumeration of the favourite haunts of Apollo, qui rore puro Castaliae lavit crines solutos, qui Lyciae tenet dumeta natalemque silvam Delius et Patareus Apollo. Od. III 4. 61.] Ζεύς, ὅστις ποτ᾽ ἐστίν, εἰ τόδ̓ αὐτῷ φίλον κεκλημένῳ, τοῦτό νιν προσεννέπω. Agam. 147. The author of the paean was apparently about to add after Λυκίαν, νέμων or some such word, offering the god the alternative birthplace of Lycia, if he happened to prefer it. The Homeric epithet Λυκηγένης, Il. Δ 101, 119, is usually supposed to denote his Lycian birthplace, Patara, though Müller, Dor. II 6. 8, would “rather understand” by it ‘born of light’. On the epithet Λύκειος, frequently applied to Apollo by the Tragedians, as Aesch. Suppl. 668 (with Paley's note), Sept. c. Theb. 133, Agam. 1228, Soph. Oed. R. 203 (Schneidewin), Electr. 6, &c. &c., see Müller's Dorians, II 6. 8, where the various significations of Apollo's titles are discussed at length; and Donaldson's New Cratylus § 269, on the connexion of λύκος with λευκός and -λύκη. [In G. Curtius' Greek Etymology, § 88 λευκός and ἀμφιλύκη, and § 89 λύκος, no such connexion is suggested.] Brandis' ‘Anonymus’ [Philologus IV. I] reads “Δαλογενές”, εἶτα, “Λύκιε ἑκάεργε”. Victorius has noted that this and the following quotation are both commencements of paeans to Apollo, from which the name of the metre is derived: and each of them exemplifies the ‘paean at the beginning’. ‘“Golden-haired Archer son of Zeus”. The other, the opposite to this, in which three short syllables form the beginning, and the long one comes at the end. “After earth and its waters, night obscured (blotted out) ocean”’. In the Greek line there are four pure paeans, all of this construction ˘˘˘-: but Ar. appears to quote it as an exemplification only of this form of paean in the last place of the verse, or rhythm. ἐξ ἐναντίας]=ἐναντίως, or ἐναντίον, ex opposito. Polit. VIII (V) 11, 1314 a 31, ὁ δ᾽ ἕτερος σχεδὸν ἐξ ἐναντίας ἔχει τοῖς εἰρημένοις τὴν ἐπιμέλειαν. Herod. VII 225, οἱ μὲν ἐξ ἐναντίης ἐπισπόμενοι. Thucyd. IV 33, ἐξ ἐναντίας οὗτοι καθεστήκεσαν, ‘opposite’, opposed to ἐκ πλαγίου. Ep. ad Titum ii. 8, ὁ ἐξ ἐναντίας. ἐξ ἐναντίου is the more usual form. The ellipse to be supplied is according to Bos, Ellips. p. 325 (562, ed. Schäfer), χώρας, corrected to ἀρχῆς by Schäfer ad loc., q. v., where several instances of the omission of that word are produced. But the ellipse of ὁδός, in one or other of its cases, is very much more common than that of χώρα or ἀρχή, in the formation of adverbs and quasi-adverbs in the feminine, genitive, dative and accusative; such as ᾗ τῇ ταύτῃ τῇδε ἐκείνῃ ἄλλῃ et sim.—a large number of instances of these three varieties of the ellipse of ὁδός is collected under that head in the work referred to, pp. 188—192; and at p. 192 init. ἐπ᾽ ἐναντίας φέρεσθαι is rightly inserted among them by Leisner (one of the earlier editors). ‘And this makes a (true and proper) end: for’ (γάρ: the reason of this, that the long syllable is required for the end, may be inferred from the consideration that follows of the incompleteness, &c. of the short syllable) ‘the short syllable by reason of its incompleteness makes (the rhythm appear) mutilated (cut prematurely short)’. Cic. Orator, §§ 214, 215, 218, u. s. κολοβόν] truncus, de Soph. El. 17, 176 a 40, ὅσα μὴ σαφῶς ἀλλὰ κολοβῶς ἐρωτᾶται, παρὰ τοῦτο συμβαίνει ὁ ἔλεγχος. Poste, ‘elliptical.’ For other examples see the Lexicons. ‘But the (sentence or period) should be broken off (brought abruptly to a close) and the end marked by the long syllable—not (however) by the scribe (or copyist), nor by a marginal annotation (marking the end of the sentence), but by the measure itself’. διά with the accusative, which indicates the cause or motive, (not the medium, channel or means, which is διά with genitive,) here implies that the indication of the end of the sentence should not be due to the scribe or his marks, stops, or what not, but solely to the rhythm: that the end should appear by the abrupt close of that. παραγραφή, a by-writing, or marginal annotation. That these were occasionally stops appears from our use of the word ‘paragraph’: just as the words that we use for stops, comma, colon, period, originally represented members of the period or the whole period itself. Victorius aptly quotes, Cic. Orat. c. LXVIII § 228 (already referred to), quod ait Aristoteles et Theophrastus, ne infinite feratur ut flumen oratio, quae non aut spiritu pronunciantis aut interductu librarii, sed numero coacta debet insistere. And to the same effect de Orat. III 44. 173, where the librariorum notae are again mentioned. Victorius also cites Isocr. Antid. § 59—to the clerk of the supposed court—ἀρξάμενος ἀπὸ τῆς παραγραφῆς ἀναγνῶθι κ.τ.λ. Ernesti Lex. Tech. Gr. s. v. [In the papyrus of the Funeral Oration of Hyperides, preserved in the British Museum, and edited in fac-simile by Professor Churchill Babington, the approach of the end of a sentence is indicated by a short interlinear dash below the first word of the line in which the sentence is about to close.]
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