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‘Now the loose style is the ancient (original) one. “This is the setting forth of the researches of Herodotus of Thurii.” This style which was formerly universal is now confined to a few. By loose I mean that which has no end in itself except the completion of the subject under discussion. And it is displeasing by reason of its endlessness (or indefinite length or character, supra c. 8. 2); for every one desires to have the end distinctly in view’. Quintilian, VIII 5. 27, thus describes the εἰρομένη λέξις, soluta fere oratio, et e singulis non membris sed frustis collata, structura caret. Cicero, Or. LV 186, notices the want of ‘numbers’ in Herodotus and his predecessors: which may possibly include the periodic structure of sentences; as Aristotle does, infra § 3, ἀριθμὸν ἔχει ἐν περιόδοις λέξις.

Ἡροδότου Θουρίου] This appears to be the reading of all MSS, except that A^{c} has θυρίου. Herodotus did actually join the colony established at Thurium in 443 (Clinton, F. H. sub anno 443, col. 3), and was thence sometimes called a Thurian from this his second birthplace. So Strabo, XIV c. 2, (Caria,) p. 657, of Halicarnassus; ἄνδρες δὲ γεγόνασιν ἐξ αὐτῆς Ἡρόδοτός τε συγγραφεύς, ὃν ὕστερον Θούριον ἐκάλεσαν, διὰ τὸ κοινωνῆσαι τῆς εἰς Θουρίους ἀποικίας. Plut. de exilio, c. 13, τὸ δέ, “Ἡροδότου Ἁλικαρνασσέως ἱστορίης ἀπόδειξις ἥδε,” πολλοὶ μεταγράφουσι, “Ἡροδότου Θουρίου.” μετῴκησε γὰρ εἰς Θουρίους, καὶ τῆς ἀποικίας ἐκείνης μέτεσχε. Id. de Herodoti malignitate c. 35, καὶ ταῦτα, Θούριον μὲν ὑπὸ τῶν ἄλλων νομιζόμενον, αὐτὸν δὲ Ἁλικαρνασσέων περιεχόμενον. The second of these passages may be interpreted to mean, that the reading in Plutarch's time was often found altered in the copies of Herodotus' history, from Ἁλικαρνασσέως to Θουρίου; and if so, no doubt Aristotle's copy may have had that reading, which he transferred to his Rhetoric. But on the other hand, Demetrius, περὶ ἑρμηνείας, § 17 (περὶ περιόδου), in quoting the same passage, follows the reading of all our MSS Ἡροδότου Ἁλικαρνασσῆος ἱστορίης ἀπόδεξις ἥδε. Which, together with two other inaccuracies of quotation (in the Rhet.), the transposition of ἥδε, and the writing ἀπόδειξις for ἀπόδεξις—Demetr. preserves the correct form—leads me rather to conclude that the variation from our text is due here, as we have already seen in so many other instances, to our author's carelessness in quoting from memory, without referring to the original. Aristotle was a book-collector, and no doubt possessed a copy of Herodotus. Victorius thinks that the reading here is sufficiently justified by the fact that Herodotus did actually become a citizen of Thurii, and was so called. But the point here to be decided is not whether he was ever so called by others, or even by himself at odd times; but whether he did, or did not, write himself a Thurian at the commencement of his own history: which I deny, and attribute the implied assertion of that fact as a mere misquotation to our author himself.

‘And this is why it is only at the goal that (the runners) pant (or gasp) and become faint, because whilst they are looking forward to the limit of the race they don't flag before that (i. e. before they have reached the goal)’. This, as I have said in Introd. p. 311, note, seems the explanation of the illustration which is required by the application of it and by the context. The sight of the goal before them, the term of their labour, keeps up the racers' spirits and stimulates their exertions, so that they neither faint nor fail till they reach it: then ἐκπνέουσι καὶ ἐκλύονται, they breathe hard, and their exertions being over, their sinews are relaxed, they slacken and grow languid. This interpretation, which is opposed to that of Victorius (see note u.s.), makes the καμπτήρ, which is properly the turning-point of the δίαυλος—whence its name—here the goal of the στάδιον or single race, in a straight line: the καμπτήρ of the δίαυλος being in fact the πέρας of the στάδιον. If the καμπτήρ were intended here for the turning-point, the statement made of it could not be true, for in that case the runners would not come in sight of the goal until they had passed the καμπτήρ. So in Eth. N. V. 1. 2, 1095 b 1, an illusration is borrowed from the single foot-race, the στάδιον; ὥσπερ ἐν τῷ σταδίῳ ἀπὸ τῶν ἀθλοθετῶν ἐπὶ τὸ πέρας ἀνάπαλιν (to illustrate the Platonic ἀπὸ τῶν ἀρχῶν ἐπὶ τὰς ἀρχάς). And similarly the Tragic poets express reaching the term or end of life by κάμπειν, which seems to imply the necessity of this explanation. Soph. Oed. Col. 91, ἐνταῦθα κͅάμψειν τὸν ταλαίπωρον βίον. Eur. Hel. 1666, ὅταν δὲ κάμψῃς καὶ τελευτήσῃς βίον. Electr. 956, πρὶν ἂν τέλος γραμμῆς ἵκηται καὶ πέρας κάμψῃ βίου. Hippol. 87, τέλος δὲ κάμψαιμ᾽ ὥσπερ ἠρξάμην βίου. This single course is also called δρόμος ἄκαμπτος, or ἁπλοῦς, or εὐθύς, Pollux et Hesychius ap. Stallbaum ad Phaedo 72 B. The καμπτήρ, or στήλη, with the inscription κάμψον, was called τέρμα, βατήρ, τέλος and νύσσα. Comp. Krause Gymn. u. Agon. der Hell. I 140.

ἐκλύονται] Comp. Isocr. Paneg. § 150, πρὸς τὸν πόλεμον ἐκλελυμένος (slack, remiss). Ib. ἀντίδ. § 59, ἵν᾽ οὖν μὴ παντάπασιν ἐκλυθῶ (be exhausted) πολλῶν ἔτι μοι λεκτέων ὄντων. Ar. Pol. VII (VI) 6, πλοῖα ἐκλελυμένα, of crazy vessels. Ib. Hist. Anim. IX 1. 32, ἕως ἂν ἐκλύσωσιν (of taming elephants). Xen. de Ven. 5. 5, dogs lose their keen smell in the summer διὰ τὸ ἐκλελύσθαι τὰ σώματα. Ar. Probl. XXX 1. 6, λίαν πολὺς (οἶνος) ἐκλύει, de Gen. Anim. I 18. 51, ἔκλυσις, relaxation, weakness. Ib. V 7. 21, ἀρχὴ κινοῦσα τὴν φωνὴν ἐκλύεται.

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