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καθ᾽ ἕκαστον τούτων, for ταῦτα καθ᾽ ἕκαστον or ἕκαστον τούτων. It is common to find καθ᾽ ἕκαστον thus treated as a single word and serving as object to a verb. Similarly in Phil. 3. 22 καθ᾽ ἕν̓ οὑτωσὶ περικόπτειν καὶ λωποδυτεῖν τῶν Ἑλλήνων.

The promise made in χωρὶς is not strictly fulfilled, as the answers to τίς and πόση are combined in §§ 21, 22; πῶς ἐθελήσει is dealt with in §§ 24—27, and the matter of τροφὴ in §§ 28, 29.

ξένους μὲν λέγω. We may suppose that the sentence was intended to proceed πεντακοσίους καὶ χιλίους, πολίτας δὲ πεντακοσίους; but the speaker interrupts himself to insert a parenthesis forestalling objections based on the smallness of the force suggested, and does not resume the construction. The ξένοι are mentioned first as connecting this sentence with what precedes—‘I do propose mercenaries’ (though what I have just said might lead you to think otherwise).

ποιήσετε. All the manuscripts here give the subjunctive ποιήσητε; but editors are for the most part agreed that the future indic. is necessary. See Goodwin, M.T. 283. On the whole the best view seems to be that the subjunctive in independent clauses introduced by ὅπως μὴ is admissible, if at all, only when the sense to be given is that of cautious assertion or fear, not, as here, of exhortation. Note that in positive independent clauses introduced by ὅπως the subjunctive is never found.

πάντ᾽ ἐλάττω, with asyndeton, as fairly often in explanatory sentences.

ἐπὶ τῷ πράττειν, ‘when it comes to action’; ἐπὶ has its local significance.

ἐλάττω, sc. τοῦ δέοντος. With φαίνηται supply ὄντα, not εἶναι (‘proves’ not ‘seems’).

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