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ἐχρῆν, like προσῆκεν, ἔδει, of an obligation in present time not fulfilled. ἵππαρχον, singular, in the view of most authorities, because one of the two ἵππαρχοι necessarily remained at Athens to take part in ceremonies. But (1) it is not clear that this was the case; on the contrary it is probable à priori that in the case of important campaigns both hipparchs would serve abroad, each commanding his five tribes; (2) even if that was the case, the singular is not necessary, as the plural might quite naturally be used of successive officers, and (3) all MSS. except S give the plural. (Voemel's contention that the plural would require the article is untenable.) ἄρχοντας resumes ταξιάρχους and ἱππάρχους under a more general term, οἰκείους (used predicatively) being parallel to and practically synonymous with παρ᾽ ὑμῶν. This seems better than to take ἄρχ. οἰκ. in apposition to the preceding substantives. ἵν᾽ ἦν. In final clauses introduced by ἵνα, ὅπως, or ὡς a past tense of the indicative is regularly used when the main clause contains a past indicative expressing what is not the case (an unfulfilled wish, the protasis or the apodosis of a conditional sentence): sometimes also when the main verb is not a past indicative but the significance is of a similar character (e.g. Eur. Hec. 814 “τί...πειθὼ... οὐδὲν...σπουδάζομεν...μανθάνειν, ἵν᾽ ἦν ποτε πείθειν ἅ τις βούλοιτο”, where τί οὐδὲν σπουδάζομεν is nearly equivalent in meaning to ἐχρῆν σπουδάζειν). ὡς ἀληθῶς: so ὡς ἑτέρως, ὡσαύτως; so far as meaning goes, the ὡς may be ignored. Three explanations of the origin of this idiom have been suggested: (1) ὡς is exclamatory; (2) ὡς is relative with an ellipse ὡς ἂν ἀληθῶς ἔχοι or εἴποι τις; (3) ὡς is a survival of a declension of the article without τ, agreeing with ἀληθῶς, it being probable that adverbs in -ῶς were originally cases of adjectives. The last explanation is probably the best. The suggestion clearly implied here, though Demosthenes refrains from making a definite proposal, is that all the superior officers of forces employed by Athens should be appointed by the state. We infer that at present the στρατηγὸς in charge of operations organised his command according to his own pleasure. εἰς Λῆμνον. This hipparch is distinct from the two regular officers mentioned above. He was a comparatively unimportant officer who commanded a cavalry corps stationed in that island (Aristotle, Ἀθ. Πολ. 61. 6). Μενέλαον, reasonably identified with a certain Pelagonian from Upper Macedonia, who assisted Timotheus in his campaigns. ἱππαρχεῖν, not in its special sense, but simply ‘to be in command of the cavalry.’ τὸν ἄνδρα. The accusative and the dative seem to be used indifferently after μέμφομαι of the person blamed. ὅστις ἂν ᾖ, after ἔδει, where one might expect ὅστις εἴη. The form appropriate to primary sequence is preferred because the significance of the sentence is that of a general statement in present time.