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χορηγός. The χορηγία and γυμνασιαρχία belonged to the class of ἐγκύκλιοι (regular) λῃτουργίαι, distinguished from those which were only imposed as occasion required. They were discharged in rotation by members of the several tribes. The χορηγὸς had to bear the expense of providing and training choruses for the drama and for other choral competitions; the γυμνασίαρχος was responsible for the cost of athletic contests. τί λαβόντα (sc. ἕκαστον) τί δεῖ ποιεῖν. For two interrogatives in one clause cf. § 3; note that those interrogatives which are connected with the same verb are coupled by a copula. A striking effect of rapidity is obtained as we approach the climax of this part of the speech by the free use of asyndeton and by the multiplication of short coordinate clauses. ἀνεξέταστον and ἀόριστον are predicative. ἅμ᾽ ἀκηκόαμέν τι καί, ‘it is only when we have received news that.’ Coincidence in time is frequently expressed by means of coordinate clauses. τριηράρχους. These were appointed both in earlier and in later times in regular succession, whether their services were required at the time or not. It appears that before the time of this speech there had arisen (whether by deliberate change of policy or by mere laxity) a practice of leaving the appointment of trierarchs until it had been decided to employ ships on active service. If any citizen called upon to act as trierarch claimed that a wealthier citizen had been passed over he might demand that the latter should either undertake the duty in his place or exchange properties with him (ἀντίδοσις). The στρατηγοὶ were responsible for the appointment of trierarchs and for the supervision of ἀντιδόσεις. ποιούμεθα, ‘cause.’ τοὺς μετοίκους. Resident aliens at Athens were liable to military service, the wealthier as hoplites, the rest as seamen. Freedmen were politically in the same position as μέτοικοι, and were known as χωρὶς οἰκοῦντες because they no longer dwelt with their masters. αὐτοὺς πάλιν, sc. ἐμβαίνειν. ἀντεμβιβάζειν, ‘to put substitutes on board.’ These substitutes, it seems, would be either slaves or hirelings, provided by the citizens liable for service.