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I may be told that his preference for Thebes is based on honourable motives. This is refuted by the inconsistency of his actions. ἀλλὰ νὴ Δία, a regular formula (like Cicero's at enim) for introducing an argument supposed to be put forward by an adversary. ὡς πάντα ταῦτ᾽ εἰδώς, ‘pretending knowledge of all these matters,’ i.e. of Philip's motives. It is best thus to take εἰδὼς as agreeing with τις. Some would make it agree with the subject of ἔπραξεν (Philip), making ὡς equivalent to ὅτι, while πάντα ταῦτα will be the knowledge attributed to Philip in §§ 11, 12: but with ἀλλὰ νὴ Δία the objection is normally in oratio recta. ὧν for τούτων (ἕνεκα) ἅ. τῷ ἀξιοῦν, causal dative. τοὺς Θηβαίους is subject. καί, with μόνον, giving a concessive force—‘this plea, though it be the only one,’ ‘this plea, even if no other’; so ‘this above all others.’ τότε, on the conclusion of the peace. The argument is this:— Philip is now claiming liberty for the Messenians (over whom Sparta has exercised dominion for centuries); his justification can only be the principle that every distinct nationality ought to enjoy independence. But he acted contrary to this principle in the case of O. and C. (though their independence had been maintained until after Leuctra, and they had therefore a much stronger case than the Messenians). The construction of the last words is σκήψαιτο πεποιηκέναι (sc. ταῦτα) τῷ νομίζειν (causal) ταῦτα δίκαια εἶναι.