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Hiatus (Latin for ‘gaping’) occurs when a word ending in a vowel immediately precedes another which begins with a vowel. It may be avoided, of course, by elision, as “ἔφατ᾽”(“ο”) “εὐχόμενος”. It is chiefly found under the following conditions:

1. If the first of the two words ends in a long vowel or a diphthong which is regarded and used as a short syllable. This shortening of a final long vowel or diphthong in the arsis, before an initial vowel of the following word, is very common. E. g.

A 14, “ἑκηβόλου ῎Απόλλοωνος

A 15, “χρυσέῳ ἀνὰ” (“-εῳ” is pronounced as one syllable; cf. § 43).

3.164, “οὔτί μοι αἴτίη ἐσσί: θεοί νύ μοι αἴτιοί εἰσιν

a. Final “-αι” and “-οι”, though short in determining word accent, are metrically long except under the condition just noted.

2. If the first word ends in “-ι” (dative singular of third declension) or “-υ”. E. g. B 6, “Ἀγαμεμνονι οὖλον. Ω” 387, “σύ ἐσσι”. But many such instances (e. g. A 393) must be referred to § 25.3.

3. If the first word is followed by a natural pause ( § 16, § 19, 20). E. g.

(a) Feminine caesura of third foot:

A 27, “ νῦν δηθυ?νοντα ὕστερον αὖτις ἰόντα”.

(b) Masculine caesura of third foot:

A 114, “κουριδίης ἀλόχου, ἐπεὶ οὔ ἑθέν ἐστι χερείων”.

(c) Bucolic diaeresis:

B 3, “ἀλλ᾽ γε μερμήριζε κατὰ φρένα ὡς Ἀχιλῆα”.

(d) Diaeresis after first foot:

I 247, “ἀλλ᾽ ἄνα εἰ μέμονάς γε κτλ.

After the formula αὐτὰρ at the beginning of a line hiatus is several times found (as in A 333), although there is actually no pause in sense.

4. If the first word ends with the thesis of a foot, even when no natural pause occurs at that point. E. g. A 30,

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