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Some important particles

1. ἄρα (also found as “ἄρ᾽ , ἄρ, ῥα, ῥ᾽”), ‘as may be believed,’ ‘of course,’ ‘as it seems,’ ‘so,’ ‘then,’ etc.

2. νυν), an enclitic, ‘now’ (inferential), ‘then,’ ‘pray,’ etc. Homer uses the temporal “νῦν” also.

3. κεν), an enclitic, equivalent to Attic “ἄν” (cf. § § 189 ff.).

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