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Book 1 (Α

ἄειδε, for the form see § 41. The Attic present is “ᾁδω”. Like Latin cano, it admits an object (“μῆνιν”) in the accusative. Cf. “ᾠδάς τινας ᾁδοντες(Xen. Anab. IV, 3, 27).

θεά, § 66; elsewhere called ‘Muse,’ but Homer applies no more definite name than this to the goddess of epic song.— Πηληιάδεω, for ending, § 65, § 68; scansion, § 43; composition, § 157.

Ἀχιλῆος, declension, § 86, § 87.

[2] οὐλομένην, ‘the baneful wrath’; for spelling, § 35. Translate as closely as possible in the Greek order, so as to retain the original emphasis; here ‘wrath’ may be repeated.

μυρί᾽, elided vowel, § 40.1; meaning, § 109.

Ἀχαιοῖς, originally a tribal name, then used for ‘Greeks’ in general.

ἄλγε᾽, elision, § 40.1; declension, § 78, § 91.

ἔθηκεν, ‘made,’ a common Homeric meaning of “τίθημι”.

[3] ἰφθίμους agrees with “ψυχάς”, the masculine doing duty as feminine.

Ἄιδι (Attic “Ἅιδῃ”, i. e. “ᾄδῃ”), declension, § 96; as used by Homer, almost always indicates the god himself, ‘Hades.’

[4] αὐτούς, ‘the men themselves,’ “τὰ σώματα”, in contrast with the “ψυχάς.

τεῦχε, not augmented, § 125.

κύνεσσιν (Attic “κυσί” for “κυν” + “σι”), declension. § 78, § 82.

[5] οἰωνοῖσι, declension, § 73, § 76.

Διός, declension, § 98.

δ᾽έ), ‘while’; it will be observed that “δέ” must often be rendered not by this word only, but also by ‘for’ and even ‘although.’

ἐτελείετο, spelling, § 150.

βουλή, the ‘purpose’ to defeat the Achaeans and to confer honor on the injured Achilles, in answer to Thetis's prayer; all this will be developed later.

[6] ἐξ οὗ κτλ. (“καὶ τὰ λοιπά” = et cetera), ‘from the time when once they quarreled and parted’; to be joined in thought with l. 1: ‘sing of the wrath from the time when’ etc.

διαστήτην, not augmented, § 125.

[7] Ἀτρεΐδης, formation, § 157. Agamemnon is meant, as is suggested by the appositive “ἄναξ ἀνδρῶν”. In another context the word might indicate his brother Menelaus as well (cf. 3.347, 350, 361).

ἄναξ, on the hiatus, § 25, § 27, 60.

Ἀχιλλεύς, spelled with two “λ”'s (compare “Ἀχιλῆος”, l. 1), § 39.

[8] With an art that has formed a model for succeeding epic poets, Homer takes up the story in the very middle with an exciting incident. What has gone before he allows to come to light gradually. The incidents of the Iliad occupy about seven weeks (forty-nine days) of the tenth year of the siege of Troy (cf. B 134, 295, 296); the first book occupies twenty-one days of this time.

ἄρ, on the different forms of this little word, which, though indicating various shades of feeling, is often untranslatable, see § 49.1.

σφωε, enclitic pronoun, third person, accusative dual, § 110.

θεῶν, partitive genitive with “τίς.

ξυν-έηκε, the syllabic augment points to the fact that “ἵημι” originally began with a consonant; on the spelling, § 41.

μάχεσθαι, syntax, § 212.

[9] Λητοῦς, form, § 94.

υἱός, named in l. 14.

, personal pronoun, § 118.2.

βασιλῆι (Attic “βασιλεῖ”), declension, § 86.

[10] ἀνὰ στρατόν, ‘through the camp.’

ὀλέκοντο, poetic verb: ‘and the soldiers kept dying.’ On neglect of augment, § 125.

λαοί, declension and Attic equivalent, § 77.

[11] οὕνεκα, ‘because’; form, § 45.

τόν, probably demonstrative, § 118.1: ‘that’ Chryses, celebrated in epic song.

ἀρητῆρα, composition, § 156.1.

[12] νῆας, declension, § 101; Attic “ναῦς” (GG. 136).

[13] λυσόμενος expresses purpose.— “θύγατρα” (Attic “θυγατέρα”), § 85.— ἄποινα, probably in the form of gold, bronze, and raiment.

[14] ‘With the fillet of far-darting Apollo in his hands, upon a golden staff.’ In classical times suppliants regularly carried boughs entwined with wool, when urging their petitions, as is shown by various passages in later literature. Here the priest brings the sacred woolen fillet of his god on his own priestly staff. If “στέμματ᾽”(“α”)—and not “στέμμα τ᾽”(“ε”)—is the true reading, the plural is probably used with reference to the parts of wool that composed the fillet; cf. notes on 3.29, 55. Below (l. 28) the singular occurs.

ἑκηβόλου, short ultima in scansion, § 25.1.

Ἀπόλλωνος, quantity of initial vowel, § 30.

[15] χρυσέῳ (Attic “χρυσῷ”), lack of contraction. § 41; synizesis, § 43; the resulting syllable scanned short, § 25, 1. As to the meaning of ‘golden’ staff, see note on l. 246.

[16] Ἀτρεΐδα, accusative dual, § 65.

δύω, Attic “δύο.

κοσμήτορε, composition, § 156.1.

[17] ἐυκνήμιδες, ‘well-greaved’; see Introduction on Homeric armor. 30.

[18] θεοί, scanned as one syllable, § 43.

δοῖεν, why optative? § 201.

[19] Πριάμοιο, declension, § 73.

πόλιν, the ultima, though short, receives the ictus, § 32.

ἐύ = Attic “εὖ”. In the text this adverb is printed as two syllables in the fourth foot before the bucolic diaeresis ( § 11, § 19) and in the second half of the fifth foot. In other places in the verse both the contracted and the resolved forms occur.

[20] λῦσαι ... δέχεσθαι, infinitives for imperatives, § 213.

τά, probably demonstrative, § 118.1.

[21] ἁζόμενοι agrees with “ὑμεῖς” understood.

[22] ἐπ-ευ-φήμησαν, ‘cried out in approval’; the temporal augment is neglected, unnecessarily, for the reading might as well be “ἐπ-ηυ-φήμησαν”.

[23] αἰδεῖσθαι, complementary to “ἐπευφήμησαν”, which amounts to a verb of commanding: ‘to reverence the priest.’

θ᾽ = “τε.

ἱερῆα, like “βασιλῆα” (Attic “βασιλέα_”), § 86.

δέχθαι, spelling, § 131.

[24] οὐκ ... ἥνδανε, ‘it [i. e. to respect the priest and to accept the ransom] pleased not Agamemnon in his heart.’

ἥνδανε, on the hiatus, § § 27; 61, 1.

θυμῷ, syntax, § 177 (a).

[25] ἐπὶ ... ἔτελλεν, tmesis, § 163, § 165.

μῦθον, ‘threat.’

[26] μή σε ... κιχείω, ‘let me not find you’ § 193).

κοίλῃσιν, declension, § 65, § 71; Attic “κοίλαις.

νηυσί, declined, § 101.

κιχείω, where found? § 149.

[28] νυ, § 49.2.

τοι, enclitic pronoun, § 110.

[29] τήν, personal pronoun, § 118.2.

πρίν κτλ., ‘ere then shall old age overtake her.’

μιν, enclitic pronoun, here = Attic “αὐτήν”, § 110. It may be used for masculine and neuter also.

[30] For the hiatus between ἡμετέρῳ and ἐνί (Attic “ἐν”) see § 25.4.

οἴκῳ originally began with a consonant, § 61.28.

ἐν Ἄργεϊ (declined like “ἔπος”, § § 91 and 41), the district in the Peloponnesus ruled by Agamemnon; the seat of his power was Mycenae. Cf. note on l. 79.

πάτρης (Attic “πατρίδος”), syntax, § 175.

[31] ‘Moving to and fro before the loom and sharing my bed.’ The construction of λέχος is remarkable; it may be considered a “limit of motion” accusative § 179); but elsewhere “ἀντιάω” takes a partitive genitive.

[32] σαώτερος, in emphatic position, to be translated after “ὡς.

κε, enclitic particle, § 49.3.

νέηαι, form, § 142.1; syntax, § 196.

[33] ὣς ἔφατ᾽ο) = Attic “οὕτως ἔφη.

ἔδδεισεν, for double “δ”, § 62.1; “ν” movable in spite of the following “δ᾽”(“έ”), § 50.

γέρων, § 119 (a).

[34] βῆ, accent, § 126.

παρὰ θῖνα, ‘along the strand.’

πολυφλοίσβοιο, imitative of the sound of the wind-swept sea.

[35] πολλά, object of “ἠρᾶθ᾽” (= “ἠρᾶτο”, from “ἀράομαι”): ‘earnestly prayed.’

γεραιός, use of article, § 119 (a).

[36] τόν, relative pronoun, § 118.4; cf. ‘that’ in English.

[37] μευ, enclitic pronoun, § 110; contraction, § 42.

ἀμφιβέβηκας, to be translated by present tense, ‘guardest,’ § 187. The metaphor involved is illustrated by the line:

ἀμφὶ δ᾽ ἄρ᾽ αὐτῷ βαῖν̓ ὥς τις περὶ πόρτακι μήτηρ” (P 4), ‘Menelaus strode before him [the slain Patroclus] like a cow before her calf,’ to give protection. Compare also E 299.

[38] ζαθέην, composition, § 160.

τε ἶφι, hiatus, § 61.21.

[39] εί ποτε κτλ., ‘if ever I roofed overhead a temple pleasing in thy sight.’ The temple plays no further part in the story of Chryses; but the altar does appear later. In the earlier times the gods were worshiped at altars in the open air; but some distinct references to temples will be noticed later in the poem (E 446-448; Z 274, 279, 297).

ἔπι, adverb, § 162, § 164.

νηόν, declension, § 77.

[40] κατὰ ... ἔκηα (Attic “κατέκαυσα”), § 163, § 165.

[41] ἠδ᾽έ), common Homeric equivalent of “καί.

κρήηνον (Attic “κρᾶνον”), from “κραιαίνω” (Attic “κραίνω”).

ἐέλδωρ, spelling, § 61.13.

[42] ‘May the Danaans pay for my tears by thy shafts.’ τίσειαν, syntax, § 201.

Δαναοί, another name for the ‘Greeks’ in general, regarded as the ‘people of Danaus,’ the mythical Argive king.

σοῖσι, meaning, § 113; declension, § 76.

βέλεσσιν, declined like “ἔπος”, § 91, § 83.

[43] τοῦ, personal pronoun, § 118.2.

[44] κατ᾽ Οὐλύμποιο καρήνων, ‘down from the summits of Olympus.’— Οὐλύμποιο = Attic “Ὀλύμπου.

καρήνων, declined, § 100.

κῆρ, accusative, ‘at heart.’

[45] τόξα, a single bow; plural because made of parts fitted together.

ὤμοισιν, declension, § 76; syntax, § 177.

φαρέτρην, spelling, § 64.

[46] χωομένοιο, of him ‘in his anger.’

[47] αὐτοῦ κινηθέντος, ‘as the god started up.’

ἤιε, Attic “ᾔει”, from “εἶμι.

ἐοικώς, for the original spelling cf. § 61.24.

[48] νεῶν, declension, § 101.

μέτα, adverb, § 162, § 164.

ἕηκεν, see note on l. 8.

[49] ‘And a dreadful clang arose from the silver bow.’ With the imitative words “ἔκλαγξαν” (l. 46) and “κλαγγή” compare “λίγξε βιός” (4.125), which expresses a similar idea.

ἀργυρέοιο, uncontracted, § 41.

[50] οὐρῆας, declined like “βασιλεύς”, § 86.

ἐπ-ῴχετο, ‘he assailed.’

[51] ‘But next he sped his keen shaft at the men themselves [“αὐτοῖσι”] and kept shooting.’—Either βέλος (note the long ultima) ἐχεπευκές illustrates ictus lengthening § 33) or the force of the original sigma of [“ς”]“εχεπευκές” is still felt.

[52] βάλλ᾽, elision, § 40.1.

αἰεί = Attic “ἀεί.

νεκύων, genitive of material with “πυραί” (cf. GG. 506).

θαμεῖαι, to be translated in the predicate, after the Greek order: ‘thickly,’ one after another.

[53] κῆλα = “βέλεα” (cf. l. 51).

[54] τῇ δεκάτῃ, ‘on the tenth day,’ like the Attic construction.

ἀγορήνδε, spelling, § 64; suffix, § 155.5.

καλέσσατο, double sigma, § 53.

[55] τῷ, personal pronoun, § 118.2; syntax, § 176.

φρεσί, φρένες, diaphragm of the body; used by the Greeks for the seat of thought and emotion; cf. English ‘heart.’—Here (Attic ‘Hera’) and Athene (Attic ‘Athena’) were hostile to the Trojans. Why?

[56] ῥα, § 49.1.

ὁρᾶτο, § 125. Homer uses the middle of this verb in active sense.

[57] ἤγερθεν, form, § 136.8.

[58] τοῖσι, dative of interest § 176), ‘rising up before them.’

δέ here has the force of a weakened “δή”, ‘then,’ § 31. It can not be translated in this place by ‘but’ or ‘and’; yet by some it is believed to have once had that force, even here, surviving as a relic of the time when, in primitive language, all clauses were coördinated—when there was no “hypotaxis,” but only “parataxis.”

[59] ἄμμε, pronoun of first person, § 110.

πλαγχθέντας, from “πλάζω”, —‘Now I think that we, driven back, shall return home again, if possibly we should escape death—if, in fact, both war and pestilence are at the same time to destroy the Achaeans.’

[60] εἴ κεν ... φύγοιμεν § 208) expresses a possibility more remote than “εἰ ... δαμᾷ” (l. 61).

[61] εἰ δή, ‘if in fact’ is nearly equivalent to ‘since in fact.’

δαμᾷ (future indicative, § 151) agrees with one subject only, like “χραίσμῃ”, l. 28.

[62] ἐρείομεν, form, § 148; hortatory.

[63] τε, observe that this word helps out the meter and also accompanies a general statement; it is often not to be translated.

[64] ‘Who may say [potential—or “hypothetical”—optative, § 206] why Phoebus Apollo has become so much angered.’

τόσσον, spelling, § 51.1.

[65] γ᾽ε), ‘he,’ with very slight emphasis.

εὐχωλῆς, ἑκατόμβης, genitives of cause; the vow may have been unfulfilled, the hecatomb neglected.

[66] ‘In the hope that when he has shared in the savor of unblemished lambs and goats, he may be willing to avert destruction from us’; cf. § 198.

αἰ = Attic “εἰ.

κνίσης, partitive genitive with “ἀντιάσας”.

[67] βούλεται, subjunctive? § 147.

ἡμῖν, dative of advantage (interest), ‘from us’; literally ‘for us.’

ἀπὸ ... ἀμῦναι, tmesis, § 163.

[68] τοι, often ‘to be sure,’ here little more than ‘well.’

κατ᾽ ... ἕζετο = Attic “ἐκαθέζετο.

τοῖσι, cf. l. 58.

[69] Θεστορίδης, composition, § 157.

[70] ᾔδει, § 61, § 23; 136, 10.

What makes ὅς a long syllable? § 37.— τὰ ἐόντα = Attic “τὰ ὄντα”, ‘the present’: τὰ ἐσσόμενα = “τὰ ἐσόμενα”, ‘the future’; τὰ πρὸ ἐόντα, ‘the past.’

τε ... τε ... τε, ‘both ... and ... and.’

[71] νήεσσι, form, § 101.

εἴσω, adverb, to be translated before Ἴλιον, which is an accusative of limit of motion.

[72] ‘By means of his seer's art, which Phoebus Apollo had given to him.’

ἥν, possessive adjective, § 113; not an Attic prose word.

τήν, relative, § 118.4.

οἱ, enclitic pronoun, § 110. Homer uses this word commonly as a personal pronoun, while in Attic Greek it is normally an indirect reflexive only.

[73] σφιν, enclitic pronoun, § 110.

[74] κέλεαι, form, § 142.1. Calchas felt himself bidden to speak on account of his preëminence among the seers; cf. l. 62.

μυθήσασθαι, ‘to interpret,’ ‘to explain.’

[75] Note that the ultima of Ἀπόλλωνος is long before ἑκατηβελέταο § 37). For declension of the latter word see § 65.

[76] ἐρέω, form, § 41.

σύνθεο, form, § 142.2, a.

ὄμοσσον, spelling, § 53.

[77] μέν § 31) = Attic “ μήν”, used in asseverations: ‘yea verily’ or ‘in very truth.’

πρόφρων, ‘with all your heart,’ agreeing with subject of “ὄμοσσον” (GG. 571), but belonging in sense with the understood subject (‘you’) of “ἀρήξειν.

ἔπεσιν ( § 91, § 50) καὶ χερσίν, ‘in word and in deed.’

[78] γὰρ κτλ., ‘for truly I think I shall enrage a man.’

χολωσέμεν, infinitive, § 137.2.

[79] Ἀργεΐων, ‘Argives,’ a third name for the Greeks, the other two being Δαναοί (l. 42) and “Ἀχαιοί.

Ἀργέιοι meant originally the people dwelling in “Ἄργος”, which at first seems to have indicated the plain of central Thessaly, neighboring to “Ἑλλάς”. But the name “Ἄργος” (or “Ἄργος Ἀχαιικόν”, as it is four times called) was early extended to the whole Peloponnesus. The Thessalian district is once called ‘Pelasgic Argos,’ in distinction (B 681).—The Ἀχαιοί once dwelt in southern Thessaly—in “Ἑλλάς” and “Φθίη”, apparently adjacent but distinct districts. The important fact is that the poets use these names (“Ἀργέιοι” and “Ἀχαιοί”) freely to indicate all the Greeks; while the name so used later—“Ἕλληνες”—stands in Homer for a single tribe only, that dwelt in “Ἑλλάς” (of southern Thessaly). Even of the Homeric Hellas the boundaries are indefinite, and traces of an application of the name more extended than its original use appear in late parts of the Homeric poems (I 447, 478, Od. 1.344, Od. 4.726, 816, Od. 15.80).

οἱ is dative singular, as is shown by the fact that it is enclitic: ‘him [in English, ‘whom’] the Achaeans obey.’

[80] κρείσσων, spelling, § 56.

βασιλεύς, supply “ἐστί”, as very often. —On omission of “ἄν” or “κε” with the present general protasis, see § 197.

χώσεται, subjunctive, § 144, II.

[81] ‘For even if he swallows his anger for that day, indeed, yet [“ἀλλά”] he keeps a grudge afterward in his heart, until he satisfies it.’

εἰ ...καταπέψῃ, in same construction as “χώσεται” (l. 80).

τε ... τε, not translatable, accompanying the general statement, as often in Homer.

[82] ὄφρα τελέσσῃ (spelling, § 52), present general protasis § 197).— ὄφρα is poetic only; the Attic equivalent here is “ἕως, μέχρι”, or a similar word.

[83] στήθεσσιν, declension, § 91, § 52.

ἑοῖσι, § § 113; 61, 6. Cf. “ἥν”, l. 72.

φράσαι εἰ, ‘consider whether.’

[85] θαρσήσας, ‘pluck up courage’; as the present of this verb indicates a state or condition, ‘to be courageous,’ the aorist may denote the entrance into that condition (GG. 464); this principle is frequently illustrated in the text of Homer.

μάλα, ‘surely,’ ‘without fail,’ strengthens εἰπέ. Account for the hiatus; § 61.16.

θεοπρόπιον, note that the last syllable, though short, receives the ictus; § 33.

οἶσθα, § 61.23.

[86] οὐ, translate the negative later with “τις” (l. 88), before which in fact it is repeated.

τε, the “τε” is not translatable, § 123.3: ‘by prayer to whom, Calchas, you reveal oracles to the Danaans.’

[88] ἐμεῦ § 110) ζῶντος ... δερκομένοιο, genitive absolute.

[89] σοί, after “ἐπί” in composition.

ἐποίσει, future of “ἐπι-φέρω.

κοίλῃς, cf. l. 26.

[90] Δαναῶν, partitive genitive with “οὔ τις” (l. 88).

Ἀγαμέμνονα εἴπῃς, account for the hiatus; § 61.16.

[91] πολλόν, ‘by far,’ declension, § 105.

[92] θάρσησε, cf. note on l. 85.

ηὔδαε, αὐδάω.

[95] οὐδ᾽έ), ‘for ... not’; cf. notes on ll. 5 and 124.

[96] τοὔνεκα, form, § 45.

[97] πριν ... πρίν (l. 98) = Attic “πρότερον” (or “πρόσθεν”) ... “πρίν”: in translation omit the former “πρίν”. What construction follows “πρίν” in Attic Greek after a negative clause? See note on B 414 and cf. GG. 644 b and d.

Δαναοῖσι, for dative cf. l. 67, “ἡμῖν.

ἀπώσει, future of “ἀπ-ωθέω”.

[98] ἀπὸ ... δόμεναι, tmesis, § 163.

δόμεναι, form, § 137.1, b. The subject ‘they’ (supply “τινά”) is purposely indefinite.

κούρην = Attic “κόρην”. Cf. the accusative plural “κόρας(Xen. Anab. IV, 5, 9).

[99] Explain θ᾽, comparing l. 23.

[100] Χρύσην, here the name of the place, not of the person.

ἱλασσάμενοι, spelling, § 53.

πεπίθοιμεν, form, § 128. ‘Then may we propitiate and persuade him.’

μιν = “αὐτόν”.

[103] μένεος, form, § 91. ‘With rage his gloomy heart was brimming’ (‘was greatly filled’).—On φρένες cf. note, l. 55.

[104] ὄσσε δέ οἱ § 61.6), ‘and his eyes’; syntax of “οἱ”, § 176.

ἐίκτην, pluperfect dual from “ἔοικα§ 61.24), ‘were like.’

[105] κάκ᾽ ὀσσόμενος, ‘with evil look,’ a phrase contrasting with “ἐὺ φρονέων”, l. 73. The penult of the adjective “κακά” (cf. 3.86, “δολίχ᾽”) receives an acute accent, as is regular when there is elision of the originally accented syllable. The rule applies likewise to pronouns (“ἔμ᾽”, l. 133), verbs (“εἴσ᾽”, l. 566), etc.; but prepositions and conjunctions lose their accent if the accented syllable is elided (GG. 34 a, b).

προσ-έειπεν § 61.16) = Attic “προσεῖπεν”.

[107] ‘Evils are always dear to your heart to prophesy.’

μαντεύεσθαι § 211) limits “φίλα”, ‘dear for prophesying’; the original dative force of the infinitive is here quite apparent (GG. 562).

[108] ἐσθλόν = Attic “ἀγαθόν”, here in sense of ‘pleasant,’ ‘gratifying.’— What is the metrical quantity of the ultima of εἶπας in its position before “ἔπος”? § 61.16.

[110] ὡς δὴ τοῦδ᾽ ἕνεκα, ‘that doubtless for this reason,’ defined in the following line.

σφιν, see l. 73.

[111] οὕνεκα, ‘because,’ as in l. 11.

Χρυσηίδος, composition, § 158.— The ‘ransom of the maid Chryseis’ means the ransom offered for her.

[112] βούλομαι, ‘prefer.’

[113] Κλυταιμνήστρης, genitive after the comparative idea in “προβέβουλα”. The correct ancient spelling of this name is “Κλυταιμήστρη” (Attic “-α_”).

[114] ἐπεὶ οὔ ἑθεν κτλ., ‘since she is not inferior to her,’ literally ‘since she [Chryseis] is not worse than she [Clytaemnestra].’

οὔ ἑθεν, why not “οὐχ”? § 61, § 6; 110.

χερείων = Attic “χείρων”.

[115] δέμας κτλ., accusatives of specification. This line seems to summarize the excellent qualities of the Homeric woman: “δέμας”, ‘figure,’ “φυήν”, ‘growth,’ ‘stature,’ “φρένας”, ‘sense,’ “ἔργα”, ‘handiwork.’ The Homeric man should have “φυή, φρένες”, and “ἀγορητύς”, ‘power of discourse’ (Od. 8.168).

τι, ‘at all.’

[116] καὶ ὥς, ‘even so,’ i. e. although all this is true.—With “δόμεναι” supply ‘her’ as object.—After τό γε supply “ἐστί”, the very common Homeric ellipsis.

[117] βούλομ᾽, elision, § 40.3.

ἔμμεναι, form, § 137.6.

, ‘rather than.’

[118] οἶος, ‘alone,’ not to be confused with “οἷος”, ‘such as.’

[119] ἔω (Attic “”), subjunctive of “εἰμί”, in a purpose clause introduced by ὄφρα, which is here a final conjunction (Attic “ἵνα”); compare l. 82, an example of the temporal use.

οὐδὲ ἔοικεν, account for the hiatus; § 61.24. ‘It is not seemly at all’ for me to lack a prize.

[120] τό γε, ‘this,’ demonstrative § 118.1), referring to the following clause.

μοι § 176) γέρας κτλ., ‘that my prize goes elsewhere.’

= “ὅτι”, § 123.7.

[121] ἠμείβετο, cf. “ἀπ-αμειβόμενος” (l. 84).

[123] γάρ, [your demand is unfair and impossible,] ‘for’ etc. It is perhaps as well, however, not to attempt to render “γάρ”, if the translation is likely to be cumbersome. ‘Why!’ often gives it (GG. 672).

[124] ‘For we do not longer [“ἔτι”] know of common goods treasured up anywhere in abundance.’ In translation, “οὐδέ” may be rendered as two words (‘and ... not,’ ‘for ... not’) if it seems better.

ἴδμεν, form, § 57.

ξυνήια = Attic “κοινά”, here a substantive.

κείμενα, the familiar passive, in meaning, of “τίθημι” = ‘deposit.’

πολλά is a predicate adjective.

[125] τὰ ... τά, § 118.4 and 1: ‘what we plundered from the cities —that is distributed.

πολίων (Attic “πόλεων”) declined, § 103.

ἔξ, why accented? § 166.

[126] ‘And it is not right for the soldiers to gather these things again and make a common store of them’; literally ‘to bring together these things collected again.’

[127] τήνδε, Chryseis.

θεῷ, ‘in honor of the god.’

πρό-ες (“προ-ίημι”), ‘let go forth,’ ‘yield.’

Ἀχαιοί, ‘we Achaeans’; note the person of the verb of which “Ἀχαιοί” is subject.

[128] αἴ κε, Attic “ἐάν”.

[129] δῷσι, form, § 136.6; this is easily recognized as the protasis of the more vivid future—or “simple future”—condition (cf. GG. 650).— ἐξαλαπάξαι, ‘to sack,’ purpose.

[131] δὴ οὕτως, pronounced as if written “δ᾽ οὕτως”, § 43.

ἀγαθός περ ἐών, ‘even though you are brave.’ “περ” has the force of “καί” often in dependent clauses (cf. l. 81) and in constructions with the participle, such as this line illustrates; the participle is concessive. Sometimes both “καί” and “περ” occur with the same participle (as ll. 217, 577). “καίπερ” (one word) with concessive participle is familiar in Attic Greek (GG. 593 b).

[132] μὴ ... κλέπτε νόῳ, ‘do not seek to deceive me in your heart’ (locative).

παρελεύσομαι (from “παρ-έρχομαι”), ‘outstrip,’ ‘overreach,’ metaphor from racing.—Achilles has frankly demanded that Agamemnon give up Chryseis; and he offers, in return, an unsubstantial chance of payment when the city of Troy is taken—a somewhat remote possibility. So, Agamemnon thinks, Achilles is holding out to him an illusory hope, and is keeping some ulterior motive hidden.

[133] , Latin an, ‘or perhaps,’ ‘is it that,’ introduces the second part of a double question, the first being implied and more or less indefinite. Most editors prefer “” (‘truly’) here. Pope gives the idea of the line thus: “Shall I my prize resign
With tame content, and thou possess'd of thine?

A more literal rendering is: ‘is it that you wish—so that you yourself may keep your prize—me on the contrary [“αὐτάρ”] to sit in “tame content” [“αὔτως”] bereft [“δευόμενον”] of mine?’

ἔχῃς, introduced by “ὄφρα” (= Attic “ἵνα”), expresses purpose.

ἔμ᾽, accented; cf. note on “κάκ᾽”, l. 105.

[134] δευόμενον, said to be Aeolic; the Attic lacks the “υ”, which is the vocalized “ϝ.

κέλεαι, cf. l. 74.

[135] ἀλλά, as usual, indicates that something is to be said quite different from the preceding context; it is derived from “ἄλλα”, i. e. ‘otherwise.’ Do not translate by ‘but,’ unless this word is clearly demanded by the sequence of ideas; here ‘yet’ will do. Compare note on ll. 81, 82.

[136] ἄρσαντες, ἀραρίσκω.

ὅπως ἀντάξιον ἔσται, § 200 (a). As the conclusion of this condition understand “εὖ ἑξει”, ‘it will be well.’

[137] εἰ ... κε, Attic equivalent? Cf. l. 128.

δώωσιν, form, § 149 (5).

ἐγὼ δέ § 31; cf. l. 58), ‘then I.’

κεν ... ἕλωμαι, syntax, § 192.

[138] τεόν, § 113.

Αἴαντος, the son of Telamon is always meant, unless the poet expressly indicates the other Ajax, the son of Oïleus.

ἰών, ‘going’ to your hut, or Ajax's, etc.

Ὀδυσῆος, declined like “Ἀχιλῆος”, l. 1.

[139] κεν κεχολώσεται, an instance of “κεν” with the future perfect indicative, a construction foreign to Attic Greek; see § 190.

ὅν, syntax, § 179.

κεν ... ἵκωμαι, protasis of the more vivid future condition (cf. GG. 650, 616 a). With what prefix is “ἵκωμαι” used in the equivalent Attic?

[140] τοι, ‘to be sure.’

καί, ‘even’ or ‘also.’

[141] νῆα (Attic “ναῦν”), declension, § 101.

ἐρύσσομεν, ‘let us launch,’ form, § 144, II; double “ς”, § 53.

[142] ἒν δ᾽έ), ‘and there,’ in the ship; for accent see § 164.

ἀγείρομεν, where found? § 144, II.

ἔς, ‘within,’ ‘therein,’ § 164.

[143] θείομεν, another hortatory subjunctive; on spelling, § 144, l.— ἄν (Attic “ἀνά”), ‘on board,’ form, § 46.

[144] βήσομεν, § 144, II; this causative first aorist is not supplied in Attic Greek by “βαίνω”, but by “βιβάζω”. So the Attic equivalent is “βιβάσωμεν”. —The subject of ἔστω is εἷς τις, to which ἀνὴρ βουληφόρος is in apposition; ἀρχός is a predicate nominative. ‘Let somebody—a man of good counsel—be captain.’

[145] Ὀδυσσεύς, here with two “ς”'s, with only one in l. 138; § 39.

[147] ‘That you may offer sacrifices and propitiate’ etc.

ἱλάσσεαι, mood and tense, § 144, II; double “ς”, § 53.

[148] τόν, object of “προσέφη.

ὑπόδρα ἰδών, why is the hiatus possible? § 61.23.

On translating the tense of ἰδών see § 186.

Agamemnon's threat to rob Achilles of his prize, Briseis, is quite sufficient to call forth the passionate speech that follows.

[149] μοι (dative of interest), exclamatory, ‘ah me!’

ἐπι-ειμένε, ‘clothed in,’ vocative of perfect participle of “ἐπι-έννυμι”. Why is “ι” of “ἐπι-” not elided? § 61.20.

[150] τοι, § 176.

πείθηται, syntax, § 194.

[151] ὁδὸν ἐλθέμεναι, ‘so as to go on an expedition.’

ὁδόν, accusative of the space or way over which an action extends; the construction is somewhat akin to that of the cognate accusative. Cf. l. 496, Z 292.— ἐλθέμεναι, form, § 137.1, a; syntax like “μάχεσθαι”, l. 8. The expression may refer to going to ambush, one of the bravest feats of Homeric warfare (l. 227); others understand it of the journey just proposed.

[152] ἤλυθον = Attic “ἦλθον.

αἰχμητάων, declension, § 65.

[153] μαχεσσόμενος, scansion, § 32; spelling, § 53; = Attic “μαχούμενος”. What is the force of the future here? Cf. “λυσόμενος”, l. 13.

μοι, ‘in my sight.’

[154] ἤλασαν, ‘drove away.’

μέν, same as “μήν”.

[155] ἐριβώλακι, prefix, § 160.

[156] , ‘truly.’

With πολλά supply “ἐστί”.

[157] οἴρεα (from “οὖρος”) = Attic “ὄρη” (“ὄρος”).

σκιόεντα, ἠχήεσσα, composition, § 159.—Why does not τε (before “ἠχήεσσα”) suffer elision? § 61.5.

[159] τιμὴν ἀρνύμενοι, ‘to win recompense’; the present participle here expresses purpose and attendant circumstance (GMT. 840).

[160] πρὸς Τρώων, ‘from the Trojans.’—τῶν οἴ τι κτλ., ‘all this you neither heed nor regard at all.’

μετατρέπῃ, how else might the form have been written? § 142.1, a.

[161] ἀφαιρήσεσθαι, future in indirect discourse: ‘you threaten you will take away.’

[162] ἔπι, why accented on the penult? § 166.

πόλλ᾽, for the accent cf. note on “κάκ᾽”, l. 105.

υἷες, declension, § 107.

[163] μέν, again the same as “μήν”, § 31.

σοὶ ἶσον, ‘equal to you,’ i. e. ‘equal to yours,’ a conciseness of expression that will be noticed more than once again (e. g. 3.238).—Why is ε of ποτε not elided? § 61.27.

ἶσον has short initial vowel in Attic.

[164] ὁππότ᾽ (spelling, § 51.1) ... “ἐκπέρσωσι”, supply the omitted particle, to make the clause normal Attic Greek. Cf. § 197.

[165] τὸ πλεῖον, ‘the greater part.’ Later (I 328, 329) Achilles claims to have sacked twelve cities by sea, and eleven by land in the Troad.

[166] χεῖρες ἐμαί, ‘my hands,’ in Attic would be “αἱ ἐμαὶ χεῖρες.

ἀτάρ, same as “αὐτάρ”, l. 51, etc., § 31.

ἤν in present general condition, as in Attic (GG. 650); so differing from the construction of ll. 163, 164, in form, rather than in force.

[167] After γέρας supply “ἐστί.

ὀλίγον τε φίλον τε, a prize ‘little but none the less dear.’

[168] νῆας, declension, § 101.

ἐπεί κε (= Attic “ἐπήν” or “ἐπάν”) κάμω is equivalent to what sort of protasis? Cf. “ἤν ποτε ... ἵκηται”, l. 166.

[169] Φθίηνδ᾽ε), composition, § 155.5.

[170] ἴμεν, where found? § 137.7.

σ᾽, for “σοί”, § 40.4.

[171] ‘Nor do I intend, without honor here as I am, to amass wealth and riches for you.’ “ἀφύσσειν”, literally, is ‘to draw’ full draughts of a liquid; its use here is metaphorical, of course.

[173] φεῦγε μάλ᾽α), the imperative strengthened as in l. 85, “μάλα εἰπέ.

ἐπ-έσσυται (from “ἐπι-σσεύω”), for translation see § 187; for double “ς”, § 39.

[174] εἵνεκ᾽ ἐμεῖο § 110) = Attic “ἐμοῦ ἕνεκα”.—Why πάρ᾽ and not “παρ᾽”, i. e. “πάρα” and not “παρά”? § 167.

[175] κε ... τιμήσουσι, form, § 146; syntax, § 190.

μητίετα, form, § 67.

[176] ἐσσι, form, § 136.2.

διοτρεφέων βασιλήων § 86). The poet regularly represents kings as cherished by Zeus, king of the gods, just as minstrels and harpists are in favor with the Muses and Phoebus Apollo.

[178] καρτερός, spelling, § 58.

εἰ ... ἐσσι, simple present supposition, as in Attic Greek (GG. 647).

που, ‘doubtless.’

[179] σῇς § 113), Attic σαῖς.

[180] σέθεν, where found? § 110.

[181] κοτέοντος (agreeing with “σέθεν”), ‘in your wrath.’

[182] ὡς means ‘as’; after this line a correlative clause, ‘so shall I take away Briseis,’ would be expected; but after an interruption (“τὴν μὲν ... πέμψω”), which disturbs the construction, the main thought is loosely resumed with “ἐγὼ δέ κε κτλ.” (l. 184).

ἔμ᾽ (for accent cf. l. 133), one of the two accusative objects of the verb of depriving; but compare the construction of l. 161.

[183] νηὶ ἐμῇ, ‘a ship of mine,’ the regular Attic expression also. Agamemnon had 100 ships, according to B 576.

[184] κ᾽ ἄγω, syntax, § 192.

Βρισηίδα, formation, § 158.

[185] κλισίηνδε, suffix, § 155.5.

τὸ σὸν γέρας, ‘that prize of yours.’

[186] ὅσσον, spelling, § 51.3.

σέθεν, why genitive? § 175.

καί, ‘even’ or ‘also.’

[187] ἶσον, neuter cognate accusative with “φάσθαι” (“φημί”): ‘to speak on a footing with me.’ Yet considerable freedom of speech—for princes, at least—was recognized in the Homeric assembly (cf. I 32, 33).

ὁμοιωθήμεναι § 137.1, b) ἄντην, ‘to make himself like me [‘to make himself my peer’], face to face’; the passive infinitive is apparently used reflexively here.

[188] Πηλεΐωνι, formation, § 157.—ἐν δέ οἱ κτλ., ‘and his heart in his shaggy breast.’

δέ οἱ, on the hiatus, § 61.6; syntax, § 176.

[190] ἐρυσσάμενος, original spelling, § 61.19.

παρὰ μηροῦ, ‘from the thigh,’ where the sword hung suspended in its sheath by a strap that passed probably over the right shoulder. The sword hung at the left side, so that the right hand could more easily draw it from its sheath.

[191] The four optatives in this and the following line stand in indirect questions, in the secondary sequence (after “μερμήριξεν”), for deliberative subjunctives of the original thought § 209). Achilles said to himself: “τοὺς” “μὲν ἀναστήσω” (‘shall I force these men to rise,’ with reference to a violent dismissal of the assembly); “Ἀτρεΐδην δ᾽ ἐναρίζω; ἠὲ χόλον παύσω ἐρητύσω τε θυμόν;

δ᾽έ), here and in some other places in Homer, does not imply a change of subject. What is the Attic use? See GG. 549 b.

[193] ἧος = Attic “ἕως”.

[194] ἧλθε δέ, another instance of “δέ” meaning ‘then’; see notes on ll. 58 and 137. At just the right moment, when the situation is getting more and more perplexing, the goddess appears on the scene, and the difficulty is solved. This device—the interference of a god—is common in the Attic drama (deus ex machina).

[195] οὐρανόθεν, suffix, § 155.2.

πρό, ‘forth’ or ‘forward.’—ἧκε, ἵημι.

[197] στῆ, accent, § 126.

ὄπιθεν = “ὄπισθεν”, in Attic prose.

κόμης, syntax, § 172.

[198] οἴῳ φαινομένη, ‘appearing to him alone.’

ὁρᾶτο, what is the Attic equivalent? Cf. note on l. 56.

[199] θάμβησεν, ‘was struck with wonder’; see note on “θαρσήσας”, l. 85.

[200] δεινὼ κτλ., ‘for her eyes shone terribly.’

δεινώ, adjective with adverbial force.

φάανθεν, form, § 136.8. The expression reflects Athene's epithet, “γλαυκῶπις” (l. 206).

[201] μιν, with “προσ-ηύδα” (cf. “ηὔδαε”, l. 92).

φωνήσας, ‘began’ and ‘addressed’ (“προσηύδα”). On scansion of this line see § 4.

[202] τίπτ᾽ε), form, § 48.—What is the ‘aegis’ of Zeus? See Introduction, 29.—εἰλήλουθας, ἔρχομαι.

[203] ‘Is it that you may see?’ etc.

ἴδῃ, form, § 142.1, a.

Ἀτρεΐδαο, declension, § 65.

[204] ἔκ, I will speak ‘out.’

ἐρέω, cf. l. 76.

τελέεσθαι, tense, § 151.

[205] ᾗς, form, § 113, § 71.

ἂν ... ὀλέσσῃ § 53), syntax, § 192.

[206] αὖτε, ‘again,’ ‘in turn.’

[207] παύσουσα, what does the tense express? Cf. l. 13.

τὸ σὸν μένος, ‘this anger of yours’; cf. l. 185.

πίθηαι, form, § 142.1; syntax, § 198.

[210] μηδὲ ... ἕλκεο § 142.1), ‘draw no further.’

[211] τοι, ‘to be sure,’ ‘yet.’

ὀνείδισον, literally ‘upbraid,’ here may be rendered: ‘threaten with reproachful words’ (“ἔπεσιν”).

ὡς ἔσεταί περ, ‘how it shall even come to pass.’ On the force of “περ”, cf. note on l. 131.

ἔσεται = Attic “ἔσται” (l. 212); a third form, “παρ-έσσεται”, is seen in l, 213; a fourth, “ἐσσεῖται”, will be met, B 393.

[213] ‘Some day even thrice as many splendid gifts shall come to you, on account of this insolence’ of Agamemnon.

[214] ὕβριος, genitive, declined like “πόλις”, § 103.

ἴσχεο, πείθεο, formed like “ἕλκεο”, l. 210.

[216] εἰρύσσασθαι, ‘to observe,’ ‘obey’; the subject is “με” understood; the object, “ἔπος”.

[217] καὶ ... περ, see note on l. 131.

θυμῷ, syntax, § 177 (a).

κεχολωμένον agrees with “με” understood.

[218] ὅς κε ... ἐπιπείθηται is the protasis of what kind of condition? Cf. GG. 616 a.

ἔκλυον, the gnomic aorist § 184) is regarded as a primary tense.

[219] , ‘he spoke’ = Attic “ἔφη”; common in the Attic formula, “ δ᾽ ὅς”, Latin inquit, ‘said he’; not to be confused with the adverb “”, ‘truly. This whole sentence, it will be observed, may be well translated nearly, if not quite, in the Greek order.

σχέθε, form, § 154.2.

[220] ὦσε, ὠθέω.

[221] βεβήκει, meaning of tense, § 188.

[222] ἔς, why accented? § 166.

[223] ἐπέεσσιν, form, § 91.

[225] κυνὸς ὄμματ᾽ ἔχων, cf. “κυνῶπα”, l. 159; the poet makes the dog typical of shamelessness; the deer, of cowardice.

κραδίην, § 58.

[226] πόλεμον, with ictus on the ultima, § 32.

θωρηχθῆναι § 137.3) limits “τέτληκας”, l. 228.

[227] λόχονδ᾽ε), cf. N 277, “ἐς λόχον, ἔνθα μάλιστ᾽ ἀρετὴ διαείδεται ἀνδρῶν”, ‘to an ambush, where most of all the valor of men is clearly seen.’— ἀριστήεσσι, declension, § 88.

[228] τέτληκας, on force of tense, § 187.—τὸ δέ τοι κτλ., ‘for this seems to you to be death.’

κήρ, note accent, and cf. l. 44, “κῆρ”.

[229] λώιον (in Attic poetry “λῷον”), how compared? GG. 182, 1.

[230] δῶρ᾽ ἀποαιρεῖσθαι, supply an object, as antecedent of “ὅστις”, ‘to deprive of gifts [him] whosoever opposes you in speech.’ On the conditional relative sentence, see § 197.

[232] Supply the place of the omitted protasis by ‘else,’ i. e. ‘were it not so.’

λωβήσαιο, construction, § 207.

[233] ἔπι, adverb, ‘besides.’ For ictus on ultima, see § 38.

[234] Achilles held a staff, put into his hand by a herald, as a sign that he had the right to address the assembly; on ending his speech he threw it down (l. 245). On the other hand, Agamemnon held no temporary scepter, but a permanent one (B 101 ff.), for he was a ‘scepter-bearing king.’— ναὶ μὰ κτλ., ‘verily by this staff.’

τό, relative; cf. “τόν”, l. 36, “τήν”, l. 72.

[235] ἐπεὶ δὴ πρῶτα (cf. l. 6) “κτλ.”, ‘since once for all it is parted from its stump.’

ὄρεσσι, double “ς”, § 52.

λέλοιπεν, translation, § 187. Vergil renders the thought

cum semel in silvis imo de stirpe recisum matre caret.

‘Since once for all cut from its stump in the forest, it [the scepter] is severed from its parent tree.’

[236] , enclitic pronoun, § 110.

[237] μιν, here for “σκῆπτρον”, neuter; cf. l. 29 (“μιν” = “αὐτήν”) and l. 100 (“μιν” = “αὐτόν”).

[238] παλάμαις, declension, § 72.

δικασπόλοι, appositive to “υἷες” (l. 237).

οἵ τε, use of the enclitic, § 123.3. In these days there seems to have been no written law; the ‘decrees’ or ‘dooms’ (“θέμιστες”) of Zeus were probably the spoken words of the ‘Zeus-cherished kings,’ which had come to have a certain stability.

[239] πρὸς Διός, ‘on behalf of Zeus,’ or ‘at the bidding of Zeus.’— εἰρύαται, form, § 142.4, a; force of tense, § 187.

[240] The important words, to be taken closely with “ναὶ μὰ τόδε σκῆπτρον” (l. 234), begin here.

ποτε, ‘surely one day.’

Ἀχιλλῆος, objective genitive with “ποθή.

υἶας, declension, § 107; syntax, § 179.

[241] δυνήσεαι, form, § 142.1; Attic “δυνήσει”.

[242] εὖτ᾽ ἄν = Attic “ὅταν”.

[243] θνῄσκοντες, ‘being slain.’

πίπτωσι, in protasis of what sort of condition? Cf. GG. 628, 650.

ἔνδοθι, suffix, § 155.3.

[244] χωόμενος, with ultima used for long syllable, § 32.

τ᾽, elision and meaning, § 40, § 2; 123, 7.

οὐδέν, ‘not at all,’ in origin a cognate accusative.

[245] ποτί = Attic “πρός.

γαίῃ = Attic “γῇ”.

[246] χρυσείοις (= Attic “χρυσοῖς”), cf. shorter form, “χρυσέῳ”, l. 15.— πεπαρμένον, from “πείρω”. The wooden staff seems to have been enclosed in a sheath, which was fastened on with nails; both sheath and nails may have been of gold. See Tsountas and Manatt, The Mycenaean Age, pp. 167-169, and Schuchhardt, Schliemann's Excavations, p. 250.

[247] ἑτέρωθεν, suffix, § 155.2.

τοῖσι, ‘before them,’ cf. note on l. 58.

[249] τοῦ § 118.4) ... “ἀπὸ γλώσσης”, ‘from whose tongue.’

καί = ‘moreover,’ if translated at all. Cicero quotes the line Cato Maior, 10, 31):ex eius lingua melle dulcior fluebat oratio.

μέλιτος, why genitive? § 175.

ῥέεν = Attic “ἔρρει”.

[250] τῷ, dative of interest, ‘for him,’ ‘in his day.’ The sense is: ‘he had already seen two generations of mortal men perish.’ Estimating a generation as a period of thirty years, some ancient commentators reckoned Nestor's age as seventy.

μερόπων, perhaps ‘mortal,’ was anciently but improperly derived from “μείρομαι”, ‘divide,’ and ὄψ, ‘voice,’ and taken to mean ‘articulately speaking.’ Compare Swinburne's “men upon earth that hear
Sweet articulate words
Sweetly divided apart.
” —Atalanta in Calydon.

[251] ἐφθίαθ᾽, where found? § 142.4, a.—The former οἵ is relative; the latter (“οἱ”), the personal pronoun, to be taken with “ἅμα”: ‘together with him.’

τράφεν, form, § 136.8. Note the poet's simple order, which may properly be kept in translation: ‘were bred and born.’

[252] ἠγαθέῃ, prefix, § 160; lengthened initial vowel, § 35.

[254] πόποι indicates amazement; translate freely, ‘'tis past belief!’

, as before (l. 78), ‘truly.’

[255] γηθήσαι, form, § 136.4; it agrees with the nearer subject only. Lines 255-257 contain a less vivid future—or “possible”—condition in its normal form; cf. GG. 651 (1).

[256] κεχαροιατο, tense, § 128; ending, § 142.4, d.

[257] σφῶιν, with “μαρναμένοιιν” in agreement, syntax, § 174. On the form σφῶιν, see § 110; πυθοίατο, § 142.4, d; μαρναμένοιιν, § 73.

[258] ‘(You) who are superior to the (other) Danaans in counsel, and superior in fighting.’

πέρι, accent, § 164.

βουλήν, accusative of specification; so, too, “μάχεσθαι.

Δαναῶν, why genitive? Cf. “Κλυταιμνήστρης”, l. 113; “σέθεν”, l. 186; “ἐμεῖο”, l. 259.

[259] δέ = “γάρ”.

[260] ἤδη γάρ ποτε, ‘for once on a time (gone by).’

ἠέ = Attic “”, ‘than.’

περ = ‘even.’

ὑμῖν, dative by attraction to case of “ἀρείοσιν” (“ἀνδράσιν”). What case would be expected?

[262] ἀνέρας, form, § 85.—Why does not οὐδέ suffer elision? § 61.23.

ἴδωμαι, syntax, § 191.

[263] For “οἷον Πειρίθοον” etc. we should expect “οἷος” [“ἦν”] “Πειρίθοος” etc.; but again we find attraction—to the case of “τοίους” (l. 262).

[264] Καινέα, form, § 90.

[265] The line is wanting in the best MSS.

Θησέα, form, § 90.— ἀθανάτοισιν, on quantity of initial vowel, § 34.

[266] κάρτιστοι, predicate adjective: ‘they were the very [“δή”] bravest men that were ever reared on earth.’

κεῖνοι, spelling, § 120.

τράφεν, form, § 136.8.

[267] μέν = “μήν”, as usual.

ἔσαν (Attic “ἦσαν”), § 125.

[268] φηρσίν, Aeolic for Attic “θηρσίν” or “θηρίοις”, ‘wild beasts.’ The name refers to the rude Thessalian “Κένταυροι”, ‘Centaurs.’ “Such a name is not likely to have been assumed by the tribe itself, but is rather an opprobrious term applied to them by their enemies” (Ridgeway, The Early Age of Greece, vol. i, p. 178).

[271] κατ᾽ ἔμ̓ αὐτόν § 112), ‘by myself alone,’ i. e. ‘independently,’ so that my valor could be clearly seen.

[272] τῶν, demonstrative, § 118.1.

ἄν ... μαχέοιτο (Attic “μάχοιτο”), ‘would fight.’

[273] μευ occurred l. 37.

βουλέων, case and scansion, § 70.

ξύνιεν, ‘heeded’; where found? § 136.7.

[274] ὔμμες = Attic “ὑμεῖς”, § 110.

[275] Addressed particularly to Agamemnon.

τόνδ᾽ε), Achilles, one of the two objects of the verb of depriving.

ἀγαθός περ ἐών, cf. note on l. 131.

ἀποαίρεο, form, § 48; Attic “ἀφαιροῦ”.

[276] ἔα (i. e. “ἔαε”), ‘suffer’ her to remain with him.

πρῶτα, cf. note on l. 235.

[277] Now Nestor turns to Achilles.

ἐριζέμεναι, where found? § 137.1, a.

[278] οὔ ποθ᾽ ὁμοίης ἔμμορε τιμῆς, ‘never shares in a common honor’ with other men, i. e. he has superior dignity; Agamemnon was a “scepterbearing king”; Achilles was not, for his father still ruled; therefore Achilles should yield precedence to Agamemnon.

ἔμμορε (“μείρομαι”), form, § 39; translated by present, § 187.

[280] Note that καρτερός is an adjective of the positive degree; cf. l. 178.—Achilles's mother was Thetis, a goddess of the sea.

[281] ἀλλ᾽ά), ‘yet.’

πλεόνεσσιν, Attic “πλέοσι” or “πλείοσι”. For syntax, cf. the dative in the phrase “τοῖσι δ᾽ ἀνιστάμενος”, l. 58.

[282] δέ, cf. l. 58.

αὐτὰρ ἐγώ γε

λίσσομ᾽αι), i. e. “ἐγὼ δέ εἰμι λισσόμενος” (Nägelsbach^{1}), ‘for it is I, Nestor, that beseech you.’

[283] Ἀχιλλῆι, dative of advantage, ‘for Achilles's sake.’

μεθέμεν, form, § 137.2.

[284] πέλεται = “ἐστί”.

[287] πέρι, as in l. 258.

πάντων, syntax like that of “Δαναῶν”, l. 258.

[288] πάντεσσι, cf. “πᾶσιν”, l. 283.

[289] τιν᾽α) “κτλ.”, things ‘in which I think somebody will not obey.’ By “τινα” Agamemnon evidently means himself.—In translation distinguish carefully among πέρι ... ἔμμεναι (l. 287), κρατέειν, ἀνάσσειν, and σημαίνειν: ‘to be superior,’ ‘to have power over,’ ‘to lord it,’ ‘to dictate.’

[290] 290 and 291. ‘If the immortal [“αἰὲν ἐόντες”] gods did make him a warrior, therefore do his abusive words rush forward [like so many warriors to the front] for utterance?’ Others render: ‘therefore do they [i. e. the gods] permit him to utter abuses?’ If the latter translation be accepted, “προθέουσιν” must come, not from “προ-θέω”, ‘run forward,’ but from “προ-τίθημι”, and be equivalent to Attic “προ-τιθέασι”—a sole instance of the form.— ἔθεσαν, for the meaning cf. note on l. 2.

[291] What part of speech is οἱ? Observe the accent on ultima of the previous word.

μυθήσασθαι indicates purpose.

[293] γάρ, cf. note on l. 123.

[294] πᾶν ἔργον, ‘in every matter.’

ὅττι, spelling, § 51.2.

[295] ἐπιτέλλεο, formed like “ἕλκεο”, l. 210.

[296] A weak line, “athetized,” i. e. rejected as spurious, by some ancient critics.

[297] σῇσιν, cf. “τεόν”, l. 282 and § 113. With σὺ δ᾽ ἐνὶ φρεσὶ βάλλεο σῇσιν, compare Vergil's “tu condita mente tenetoAen. III, 388).

298 μαχέσσομαι, for spelling cf. l. 153. What is the Attic equivalent?

[299] σοί, note the emphatic repetition: ‘by force (of hands) I will not fight with you—no, not with you or anybody else’; ‘you all’ is subject of “ἀφέλεσθε”.

[301] τῶν, emphatic repetition of “τῶν ἄλλων” (l. 300), partitive genitive with “τι.

οὐκ ἄν τι φέροις, ‘you had better not carry away anything,’ potential optative, used—in mock courtesy—with the force of a prohibition. Cf. B 250.

ἀέκοντος ἐμεῖο = Attic “ἄκοντος ἐμοῦ”. Cf. “ἄκοντος Κύρου,Xen. Anab, I, 3, 17.

[302] εἰ δ᾽ ἄγε μὴν πείρησαι, ‘come now! just try it.’ “εἰ δ᾽ ἄγε” is interjectional, and perhaps for an earlier “εἶ ἄγε”, i. e. “εἶα ἄγε”. Cf. Vergil's “eia ageAen. IV, 569).

γνώωσι, form, § 149; ‘may witness (it).’— καὶ οἵδε, ‘these men here too.’

[303] ἐρωήσει, see note on B 179.

δουρί, declined, § 97; Attic “δόρατι”.

[305] ἀν-στήτην, on the prefix see § 46; “-στήτην”, cf. l. 6.

ἀγορήν, cf. l. 54; ‘the assembly’; the word never means ‘market-place’ in Homer.

[306] The lodge of Achilles is described in 24.448-456: it was built for him by his Myrmidons, of pine timbers; the roof was thatched; the door was fastened by a single great bolt of pine; adjoining it was a great courtyard enclosed by stakes, set close together. Elsewhere (16.231) we infer that the courtyard (“αὐλή”) contained an altar of “Ζεὺς ἑρκεῖος.

ἐίσας, spelling, § 61.27.

[307] ἤιε, cf. l. 47.

Μενοιτιάδῃ, the first introduction of the ‘gentle’ Patroclus is as the ‘son of Menoetius.’

[308] ἅλαδε, force of suffix, § 155.5.

[309] Cf. l. 142.

ἐείκοσι, spelling, § 61.9.

[310] βῆσε, transitive first aorist; cf. “βήσομεν”, l. 144, and note.

ἀνά is an adverb; cf. “ἄν”, l. 143; for its accent (not retracted), cf. § 168.

[311] “εἷσεν”, a causative first aorist, containing the root of “ἕζετο”, l. 68.

[312] ὑγρὰ κέλευθα, ‘their ways in the sea’ (cf. Isaiah xliii, 16: “a way in the sea, and a path in the mighty waters”).

313, 314. The scholiast compares Euripides, Iphigenia in Tauris, 1193θάλασσα κλύζει ῾ωασηες αωαψ̓ πάντα τἀνθρώπων κακά.

[317] ‘The savor went heavenward, curling around in the smoke’; that is, permeating the smoke.

[319] λῆγ᾽ε), imperfect third singular; cf. imperative “λῆγ᾽”, l. 210.— τήν, relative § 118.4) ‘with which’ he had threatened. (Cf. GG. 530 a.)

ἐπ-ηπείλησ᾽ε), cf. the present “ἀπειλεῖς”, l. 161.

[321] τώ, relative.

[323] χειρός, syntax, § 172.

ἑλόντ᾽ε) agrees with ‘you two’ (“σφῶι”) understood.

ἀγέμεν, form, § 137.2; syntax, § 213.

[324] εἰ ... κε, Attic equivalent? Cf. l. 128.

δώῃσιν, form, § 149 (5).

ἐγὼ δέ, ‘then I,’ see note on l. 58.

κεν ... ἕλωμαι, syntax, § 192.

[325] τό, ‘this,’ demonstrative.

καὶ ῥίγιον, ‘even more shivery’; more disagreeable or dreadful than the present mission.

[327] βάτην, Attic “ἐβήτην.

παρά, ‘along.’ The ships of the Greeks stretched in lines along the shore; Odysseus's occupied a central position; while the two ends—the most dangerous positions—were guarded by the ships of Telamonian Ajax and Achilles (11.5-9).

[330] γε, why is “ε” not elided? § 61.23.

οὐδ) ... “γήθησεν Ἀχιλλεύς”, ‘and Achilles felt no thrill of joy’; on the force of the aorist, cf. l. 85.

[331] ταρβήσαντε, note the tense, ‘struck with fear.’

βασιλῆα, form, § 86.

[333] “ᾗσιν”, ‘his,’ form, § 113.

[334] καί, ‘too.’

[335] ἆσσον, comparative of “ἄγχι”, ‘near’; superlative, “ἄγχιστα.

μοι, ‘in my sight.’

ὔμμες, supply “ἐστέ”.

[336] , relative, § 118.4.

σφῶι, § 110.

[337] Πατρόκλεες, declension, § 102.

[338] σφωιν, enclitic pronoun, § 110.

ἄγειν, syntax, § 211.

μάρτυροι = Attic “μάρτυρες”, of third declension.

[339] πρός, ‘before’; cf. the meanings that have been already pointed out in idiomatic uses, ll. 160 and 239.

[340] τοῦ βασιλῆος ἀπηνέος, ‘that king unkind’: the order is like “τὸν Χρύσην ... ἀρητῆρα” (l. 11).

δὴ αἶτε, pronounced as if “δ᾽ αὖτε§ 43).

[341] γένηται, in this more vivid future protasis note the omission of “κε”, § 197.

ἀμῦναι, syntax, § 211.

[342] τοῖς ἄλλοις, dative of advantage (interest); translate with ‘from.’

γάρ receives the ictus (as in a few other lines) in spite of its quantity § 33).

θύει, ‘rages.’

[343] ‘And he does not know at all how to look at the same time to the past and to the future,’ i. e. ‘to consider carefully.’

πρόσσω and ὀπίσσω are spelled in Attic with one sigma.

[344] ‘How his Achaeans shall fight safely beside the ships.’

ὅππως § 51.1) introduces a dependent interrogative (not purpose) clause, with the future indicative § 200).

οἱ, ‘for him,’ ‘his’ § 176).

μαχέονται, form, § 151; cf. the more common future, “μαχεσσόμενος”, l. 153.

[347] παρὰ νῆας, ‘along past the ships’; cf. note on l. 327.

[348] γυνή, in apposition to “”, § 118.3.

[349] ἑτάρων, with “νόσφι”.

[350] ἔφ᾽ (“ἔπι”), for the accent cf. § 166.

[351] πολλά, cf. l. 35.

χεῖρας ὀρεγνύς, toward his mother, who dwelt in the sea.

[352] ‘Mother, since you gave me birth once for all, though for a short life, honor at least ought the Olympian to have granted me.’

γε, appended to the aorist “ἔτεκες”, gives emphasis to the single past act; with “μινυνθάδιον ἐόντα, περ” has its usual force, as noted in l. 131; with “τιμήν, περ” has the force of “γε”, a meaning that will be noticed again (e. g. l. 508). —The form ὄφελλεν = Attic “ὤφειλεν”. But to express this thought in Attic Greek “χρῆν” or “ἔδει” with infinitive and subject accusative would be used (GG. 460).

[354] νῦν δ᾽έ), ‘but as it is.’

[356] αὐτός, of course not in person, but ‘by his own order.’

ἀπούρας, on the form see § 63.3.

[358] πατρί, Nereus.

[359] ἁλός, syntax, § 175.

ἠύτε = Attic “ὥσπερ”.

[360] δάκρυ χέοντος (with “αὐτοῖο”), ‘as he wept.’

[362] σε φρένας, construction, § 180.

[363] εἴδομεν, on the digamma, § 61.23; subjunctive, § 143.

[365] It is better to translate ταῦτα πάντ᾽α) with “ἀγορεύω” (deliberative subjunctive, in question of appeal) and to understand the words with “ἰδυίῃ.

ἰδυίῃ § 61.23) = Attic “εἰδυίᾳ”, and agrees with “τοι”.

[366] The home of Chryseis was Chryse; and to this she is restored (l. 430 ff.). Naturally the question arose in ancient times, “How was she taken, then, when Thebe fell?” And the answer had to be made that either (1) she was visiting in Thebe at the time when Achilles captured that town, or (2) on the same expedition on which Achilles took Thebe he stormed Chryse also. Thebe was the home of Andromache before her marriage to Hector; she was the daughter of King Eëtion. Achilles's own prize, Briseis, was taken in the spoil of the captured town Lyrnessus.

[367] ἐνθάδε, suffix, § 155.5.

[368] δάσσαντο, cf. “δέδασται”, l. 125; and for spelling, § 54.

σφίσιν, here a reflexive pronoun, and therefore accented § 111.4).

[370] ἑκατηβόλου, cf. l. 75.

Ἀπόλλωνος, long initial vowel here, § 30.

[381] εὐξαμένου, on translation of the tense, § 186.

ἦεν = Attic “ἦν”.

[383] ἐπασσύτεροι betrays in the “υ” for “ο” its Aeolic origin.

[384] ἄμμι, Attic “ἡμῖν”, § 110; this word with “ὔμμι, ὔμμες”, etc., is Aeolic.

[385] ἑκάτοιο, cf. l. 75.

[386] πρῶτος, ‘I was first’ to urge.

[387] Ἀτρεΐωνα, form, § 157.

[388] ἠπείλησεν μῦθον, ‘made a threat’; “μῦθος” is a word of varied connotations, which the Greeks felt the meaning of; our English translation must take its cue from the context.

, relative use of the article, § 118.4.

[389] τὴν μέν, ‘the one’ damsel; “τὴν δέ” (l. 391), ‘the other.’

[390] Χρύσην, here the town, not the priest.

πέμπουσιν, ‘are escorting.’

[391] νέον κλισίηθεν κτλ., ‘only now, heralds led away [literally ‘went leading’] from my lodge.’

With ἔβαν § 136.7) the participle contains the leading idea, as with Attic “οἴχομαι”. Cf. “ᾤχετο πλέων(Xen. Anab. II, 6, 3), ‘went sailing off,’ ‘sailed away.’

κλισίηθεν, for suffix cf. “οὐρανόθεν”, l. 195.

[392] Βρισῆος, from nominative “Βρισεύς”, declined like “βασιλεύς”, § 86.

[393] περίσχεο, περι-έχω.

ἐῆος, form, § 99.

394, 395. ‘Go to Olympus and beseech Zeus, if ever you gladdened his heart at all, whether by word or by deed.’

Δία has the ictus on “-α”, § 38.

[395] ὤνησας, ὀνίνημι.

[396] πολλάκι, Attic “πολλάκις.

σεο, enclitic pronoun, § 110; limits “ἄκουσα.

πατρὸς ἐνὶ μεγάροισιν, ‘in the halls of my father,’ Peleus.

ἐνί receives the ictus on “-ι”, § 38.

[397] εὐχομένης, ‘boasting,’ agrees with “σεο” (l. 396).

ἔφησθα, form, § 136.3.

Κρονίωνι, for syntax compare l. 67, “ἡμῖν”.

[398] οἴη ἐν ἀθανάτοισιν, you ‘alone among the immortals.’

[401] ὑπελύσαο, form, § 142.1. ὑπ- means ‘from under’ the weight of his bonds.

[402] ὦχ᾽, i. e. “ὦκα.

μακρόν, ‘high.’

[404] αὖτε, ‘again,’ ‘in turn.’

οὗ§ 113 πατρός, Poseidon.

[405] ὅς, with force of demonstrative, § 123.4.

[406] ὑπέδδεισαν, for spelling cf. l. 33.

οὐδέ , account for hiatus; § 61.6.

refers to Zeus.

[407] τῶν μιν μνήσασα, ‘remind him of this.’

λαβὲ γούνων ( § 97, § 172); not a peculiar act here, but the regular custom of suppliants in Homer.

[408] ‘In the hope that he may perhaps be willing to give aid to the Trojans, and to hem in the others at their ships' sterns and about the sea— the Achaeans.’ Achilles disdainfully sets the Achaeans' name at the very end, simply mentioning them as “τοὺς δέ” at first (Cauer, Die Kunst des Übersetzens^{2}, p. 90).

αἴ κεν ἐθέλῃσιν § 136.6), in syntax like “αἴ κε πίθηαι”, l. 207.

ἐπὶ ... ἀρῆξαι, tmesis, § 163.

[409] ἔλσαι, εἴλω.

[410] κτεινομένους, agreeing with “Ἀχαιούς”: letting them be ‘slain.’— ἴνα πάντες κτλ., Pope gives the sense: “and bring
The Greeks to know the curse of such a king.

ἐπαύρωνται, ‘get acquainted with’; literally ‘partake of’ (“ἐπαυρίσκω”).

[412] τ᾽ ἄριστον κτλ., cf. l. 244.

[414] αἰνά, adverbial accusative with “τεκοῦσα”, ‘after bearing you unto trouble’ (cf. Job v, 7).

[415] ὄφελες παρὰ νηυσὶν ... ἧσθαι once meant ‘you ought to be sitting beside the ships’; cf. l. 353; and if “αἴθε” be translated ‘ah!’ we may keep the rest of the sentence in its literal meaning. A wish in present time, impossible of fulfilment, is implied; cf. Xen. Anab. II, 1, 4, “ἀλλ᾽ ὤφελε μὲν Κῦρος ζῆν”.—The force of “ἧσθαι” (l. 416) is ‘to be staying’ or ‘to be passing the time’ rather than ‘to be sitting,’ which is literal.

[416] ἐπεί νύ τοι αἶσα κτλ., supply “ἔστι”, ‘since your measure of life is [i. e. ‘endures’] for but a brief space, not at all for very long.’ For the adverbs in the predicate, adjectives might be expected; but this Homeric construction has several parallels. Cf. 4.466, “μίνυνθα δέ οἱ γένεθ᾽ ὁρμή”: ‘his onset was [endured] for a brief space.’—For quantity of ultima of μάλα, cf. § § 37; 62, 2.—That Achilles had a choice between two destinies is told in I 410-415. He might have a long, inglorious life or a short, glorious one; as is well known, he chose the latter. There is no hint of the choice in the present context, however.

[417] νῦν δ᾽έ), ‘but as it is.’

περὶ πάντων, ‘above all.’

[418] ἔπλεο, ‘you were’ and still are; or simply ‘you are’, form, § 142.1.

τῷ, ‘therefore,’ § 117.

κακῇ αἴσῃ, ‘unto an evil doom.’ Cf. § 178.

[419] ἐρέουσα, ‘in order to tell’; cf. “λυσόμενος”, l. 13.

τερπικεραύνῳ, form and meaning, § 59.

[420] ἀγάννιφον, spelling, § 39; prefix, § 160. When Olympus is called snowy, the poet has in mind those parts only that do not extend above the level of the clouds. On the other hand, the region where the gods dwell is the ever bright summit, high above the clouds and remote from the sight of men; here there is neither rain nor snow, but only perpetual fair weather, as the poet of the Odyssey sings (Od. 6.42-45). This summit reaches up into heaven (“οὐρανός”).

αἴ κε πίθηται, syntax, § 198.

[422] μήνι᾽ε), ‘rage on.’

[423] Αἰθιοπῆας, as if from nominative “Αἰθιοπεύς”. But elsewhere “Αἰθίοπας”, as if from “Αἰθίοψ”, is found.

[424] χθιζός agrees with subject of “ἔβη”. Homer commonly uses temporal adjectives where the English idiom employs adverbs.

[426] ποτί, cf. l. 245.

[428] ἀπεβήσετο, tense, § 153.

[429] γυναικός, genitive of cause.

[430] ἀέκοντος, with a pronoun (like “αὐτοῦ”) understood, is probably in the genitive absolute construction: ‘against his will.’ Others make it stand in an objective relation to “βίῃ” = ‘with violence done to him unwilling,’ ‘despite his unwillingness.’

ἀπηύρων, § 63.4.

[433] στείλαντο, ‘furled.’

[434] ‘The mast they let down into [literally ‘made approach’] its crutch, lowering it with the forestays quickly.’ The forestays were untied from the bow; and the mast thus released was bent back into its crutch.

[435] τὴν δ᾽έ), the ship.

[436] εὐνάς, stones for ‘anchors,’ ‘mooring-stones’; these they let go (“ἐκ ... ἔβαλον”) from the bow, while they made the stern cables (“πρυμνήσια”) fast (“κατὰ ... ἔδησαν”) to the shore.

[438] βῆσαν, cf. “βήσομεν”, l. 144.

[439] νηός, declined, § 101.

[441] χερσί, ‘arms.’

[444] ῥέξαι, in same sense as “ῥέξας”, l. 147.

ἱλασόμεσθα, ending, § 142.3; mood, § 144, II; cf. “ἱλάσσεαι”, l. 147.

[447] τοί, form, § 115.

[449] οὐλοχύτας, sacrificial barley, ‘barley for strewing’ (“χέω”, ‘pour’); cf. Od. 3.441, which has to do with the description of a sacrifice: “ἑτέρῃ δ᾽ ἔχεν οὐλὰς

ἐν κανέῳ”, ‘and in his other hand he [Aretus] had barleycorns in a basket.’ This barley was sprinkled on the consecrated victims before they were sacrificed.

[453] ἠμὲν (i. e. “ μὲν” [= “μὴν”]) δή ποτε ... πάρος, ‘surely once before.’

πάρος = Attic “πρόσθεν”.

[454] ἐμέ, with ietus on the ultima; this would be justified by the pause § 32), even if the next word did not begin with a liquid § 38).

ἴψαο, in formation like “ὑπελύσαο”, l. 401.

[455] ἠδ᾽ ἔτι καὶ νῦν, ‘and now too, again.’ “ἠδ᾽” (“ δέ”) is correlative with “ἠμέν” (l. 453). The clauses may be bound together in English by rendering (freely) “ἠμέν”, ‘as,’ and “ἠδέ”, ‘so.’

ἐπικρήηνον, cf. note on l. 41.

[459] αὐέρυσαν, formation, § 63.1; understand ‘the heads’ of the victims as object. With ἔσφαξαν and ἔδειραν, understand ‘the victims’ as object.

[460] κατὰ ... ἐκάλυψαν, tmesis, ‘covered up.’

[461] δίπτυχα (supply “κνίσην”) ποιήσαντες, ‘making it [the fat] doublefolded’; i. e. ‘folding it about’ the thigh-pieces, on both top and bottom. —ἐπ᾽ αὐτῶν κτλ., ‘and on them they put raw pieces.’ They cut bits of meat as primal offerings from all the limbs; these were burnt along with the thigh-pieces as a sacrifice to the god (in this instance, Apollo), who was believed thus to become a partaker of the rite.

[462] ἔπι § 162), ‘thereon.’

[463] πεμπώβολα § 108.5), ‘five-tined spits,’ for roasting several pieces of meat at once (Van Leeuwen). Cf. “ὀβελοῖσιν”, l. 465.

[464] κατὰ ... ἐκάη, § 163.

ἐπάσαντο, πατέομαι.

[465] τἆλλα, § 44.

ἀμφ᾽ (adverb) ὀβελοῖσιν ἔπειραν, ‘they pierced them around with spits.’ Cf. Verg. Aen. 1, 212:[viscera] pars in frusta secant veribusque trementia figunt.” ‘Some cut the flesh in bits and pierce it quivering with spits.’

[467] τετύκοντο, τεύχω, § 128.

[468] τι ... ἐδεύετο (= Attic “ἐδεῖτο”, cf. “δευόμενον”, l. 134), ‘felt any lack,’ ‘went ungratified.’

δαιτός, genitive of material.

ἐίσης, ‘adequate,’ ‘sufficient.’

[469] ‘But when they had satisfied [literally ‘dismissed’] their desire for drink and food.’

πόσιος, declined like “πόλις”, § 103; cf. “ὕβριος”, l. 214.

ἐξ ... ἕντο, § 163.

ἕντο = Attic “εἷντο”, from “ἵημι.

ἔρον, second declension = Attic “ἔρωτα”, third declension.—Cf. Vergil's imitation,

Postquam exempta fames et amor compressus edendi.

‘When hunger had been satisfied and desire to eat had been appeased.’

[470] κοῦροι = Attic “κόροι”. Cf. “κούρην” and note, l. 98.

ἐπεστέψαντο ποτοῖο, ‘filled up to the brim with wine.’

ποτοῖο, genitive of material.

[471] ‘And then they passed it around to all, after they had first made libation with the cups.’ With a ladle they poured some wine into every man's cup, for him, in turn, to spill upon the ground, as an offering to the gods. The custom is said still to continue in Persia. (Cf. Fitzgerald's translation of the Rubáiyát, quatrain xxxix of the fourth edition, and note on the same.)

ἐπαρξάμενοι δεπάεσσιν § 78), literally ‘after having begun with the cups’ (instrumental dative); the verb is limited to this ritualistic use.

[472] πανημέριοι, agreeing with the subject, ‘all the rest of the day.’

[475] ἦμος = Attic “ὅτε.

ἠέλιος = Attic “ἥλιος.

ἐπὶ κνέφας ἦλθεν, ‘darkness came on’ § 163).

[477] Ἠώς, declined, § 92.

[478] ἀνάγοντο (“ἀν-ήγοντο”), ‘they put to sea,’ the regular Attic prose word.

[480] θ᾽ means what? Cf. l. 23.

[481] πρῆσεν, see note on B 415.

481, 482. ἀμφὶ δὲ κῦμα κτλ., ‘and around the stem of the ship the purple billow gurgled loud as she sped along.’

[483] διαπρήσσουσα, spelling, § 56.

[484] κατά, ‘over against,’ ‘opposite’; in nautical term, ‘off.’

[487] ἐσκίδναντο = Attic “ἐσκεδάννυντο.

νέας, spelling, § 29.

[489] διογενής, on quantity of initial syllable, § 34.

ὑός (= “υἱός”), spelling, § § 29; 107, 1.

[490] πωλέσκετο, meaning of suffix, § 154.1.

[491] πόλεμον, by what principle is the ictus permitted to rest on the ultima? § 32.

φθινύθεσκε, suffixes, § 154.2.

[492] ποθέεσκε, § 154.1.

ἀυτήν, ‘war-cry,’ not the same word as “αὐτήν.

πτόλεμον = Attic “πόλεμον”.

[493] ἐκ τοῖο, ‘thereafter,’ with reference not to what has immediately preceded, as would be natural, but to the meeting of Achilles and Thetis (cf. l. 425).

δυωδεκάτη, cf. “δωδεκάτη” (l. 425); which is Attic?

[494] καὶ τότε δή, ‘then it was that.’

ἴσαν = Attic “ᾔεσαν” or “ᾖσαν”.

[495] λήθετο = Attic “ἐπ-ελανθάνετο.

ἐφετμέων, declined like “βουλέων”, l. 273.

[496] ἑοῦ, § 113; what in Attic? Cf. GG. 551 d, 554 a.

ἀνεδύσετο, tense, § 153.

κῦμα, accusative of the space or way over which an action extends; cf. A 151, Z 292, and the different construction in A 359. For the meaning, compare the merman's words to his mate:

"Go up, dear heart, through the waves;
Say thy prayer, and come back to the kind sea-caves!"
She smiled, she went up through the surf in the bay.

Matthew Arnold, The Forsaken Merman.

[497] ἠερίη, construction like that of “πανημέριοι” (l. 472) and “χθιζός” (l. 424).

οὐρανὸν Οὔλυμπόν τε, cf. note on l. 420.

[498] εὐρύοπα, ‘far-thundering,’ third declension accusative (as if from “εὐρύοψ”) of a first declension noun, “εὐρύοπα” (nominative).

[500] γούνων, cf. l. 407.

[503] ὄνησα, cf. “ὤνησας”, l. 395.

[505] τίμησόν μοι υἱόν, note the metrical scheme, --- - -u u -uu-uu --, with “μοι” remaining long in spite of the hiatus; so, too, “Σμινθεῦ” (l. 39).

ἄλλων, a genitive of comparison (i. e. originally separation), as if “ὠκυμορώτατος” were a comparative adjective; the English point of view, however, requires ‘of all’ after the superlative.

[506] ἔπλετ᾽ο), cf. “ἔπλεο”, l. 418.

[507] ἀπούρας, cf. l. 356.

[508] σύ περ = “σύ γε”.

[509] τόφρα ... ὄφρα, ‘so long’ ... ‘until.’

[510] ὀφέλλωσιν, ‘magnify.’

[511] νεφεληγερέτα, § 67.

[512] ὡς ... ὥς (l. 513), ‘as ... so.’

[513] ὣς ἔχετ᾽ ἐμπεφυυῖα, ‘so she clung, fast clasping.’ Cf. “genua amplexus ... haerebat,Verg. Aen. III, 607, 608.

ἐμπεφυυῖα is, literally, ‘grown on.’ a vigorous metaphor.

[514] νημερτές, composition, § 161.

[515] ἐπεὶ οὔ τοι κτλ., ‘since no fear rests upon you.’

ἔπι, accent, § 167; quantity of ultima, § 37.

[518] ‘Sorry doings, to be sure! in that you will compel me to fall out with Here, when she shall vex me with reproachful words.’ Why does not λοίγια suffer elision? § 61.18.

τε, § 123.7.—ἐφ-ήσεις, ἐφ-ίημι.

[519] ἐρέθῃσιν, in form like “ἐθέλῃσιν”, l. 408.

[520] καὶ αὔτως, ‘even as it is.’

[521] καί τε, the second of these words is not a conjunction here, nor has it any translatable meaning; it simply accompanies the general statement, as often in Homer. See on l. 81.

[523] μελήσεται = Attic “μελήσει”. For “κε” with the future indicative, cf. l. 139 and § 190.

ὄφρα τελέσσω, ‘until I accomplish them.’ For omission of “κε”, § 197.

[524] εἰ δ᾽ ἄγε, see note on l. 302.

ὄφρα, ‘in order that.’

[525] τοῦτο, supply “ἐστί.

ἐξ ἐμέθεν, § 155.2.

[526] ἐμόν, understand “τέκμωρ”, ‘pledge,’ and again supply “ἐστί”.

[528] , cf. l. 219.

ἔπ᾽ι), ‘thereto.’

Κρονίων, formation, § 157.

[530] κρατός, declension, § 100.

μέγαν δ᾽ ἐλέλιξεν κτλ., Vergil's “annuit et totum nutu tremefecit OlympumAen. IX, 106). These three lines (528-530) are said to have been quoted by the sculptor Phidias when he was asked after what model he should fashion his great statue of Zeus at Olympia (Strabo VIII, p. 354).

[531] διέτμαγεν, formation, § 136.8.

[532] ἄλτο, where found? § 131.

[533] Ζεὺς δέ, supply “ἔβη” from the context.

ἑόν, cf. “ἑοῦ”, l. 496.

ἀνέσταν, formation, § 136.7.

[534] σφοῦ, § 113.

πατρός, genitive limiting “ἐναντίον”, ‘before.’ Cf. note on the kindred verb “ἀντιάω”, l. 31.

[535] ἐπερχόμενον, agrees with a pronoun (e. g. “”) understood, object of “μεῖναι”.

[536] οὐ δέ μιν κτλ., ‘and Here, on seeing him, was not unaware’ etc.

μιν is object of “ἰδοῦσ᾽”(“α”).

[537] συμφράσσατο, spelling, § 54.

οἱ is dative after “σύν” in composition.

[540] δὴ αὖ, synizesis, § 43.

[541] τοι φίλον ἐστίν, ‘it is your pleasure.’

ἐόντα (as well as “φρονέοντα”, l. 542) is in agreement with the understood subject (“σε”) of the infinitive “δικαζέμεν” (l. 542).

[542] κρυπτάδια (accusative plural neuter) φρονέοντα (accusative singular masculine) δικαζέμεν, ‘to consider and give judgment on secret matters.’

542, 543. οὐδέ τί πώ μοι κτλ., ‘and you never bring yourself with any heartiness to tell me a plan that you are considering.’

ὅττι, cf. l. 294.

[545] ἐπι-έλπεο, why is the “-ι” of the prefix not elided? § 61.13.— μύθους, ‘counsels.’

[546] εἰδήσειν (Attic “εἴσεσθαι”), from “οῖδα.

χαλεποί, supply “εἰδέναι”, ‘hard for you to know.’

ἔσοντ᾽αι) has “μῦθοι” understood as subject.— On ἀλόχῳ περ ἐούσῃ, see note on l. 131.

[547] ἀλλ᾽ ὃν μὲν [μῦθόν] κ᾽ ἐπιεικὲς [ τινα] ἀκουέμεν, ‘but whatsoever counsel it is fitting for anybody to hear,’ etc.

[548] πρότερος [σοῦ], ‘sooner than you.’

εἴσεται, see “εἰδήσειν”, l. 546.

[549] ὃν [μῦθον] may well be translated in the plural, to conform, in English, to “ταῦτα” (l. 550).

ἐγών, § 110.

ἐθέλωμι, formation, § 136.1.

[550] ἕκαστα § 61.11), ‘one by one.’

[552] ποῖον (predicate adjective with reference to “μῦθον”), ‘what a charge is this that you have spoken!’ On “μῦθον”, see note on l. 388.

[553] καὶ λίην, ‘assuredly.’

πάρος (here = Attic “πάλαι”) with the Greek present is to be translated by the perfect tense in English (cf. GG. 454 d); compare the Latin iam dudum with the present.

[554] ἅσσ᾽α), form, § 124.

ἐθέλῃσθα, formation, § 136.3.

[555] δείδοικα, spelling, § 62.1.—μή σε παρείπῃ κτλ., ‘lest it prove that Thetis has talked you over’ (GMT. 93).

[559] πολέας, form, § 106.

[561] δαιμονίη (masculine “δαιμόνιε”), a common term of address, means properly a person whose conduct is so unusual or unexpected that he (of she) seems to be influenced by some untoward divinity. Sometimes a single word, sometimes a short clause, selected with reference to the context, will convey this meaning in English: ‘Here, I do not understand you,’ or ‘my misguided wife!’ Either the poet is unconscious in allowing god to address god in this inappropriate way, or he is displaying a kind of humor in letting gods mimic the speech of men.

[562] πρῆξαι, § 64.—ἀλλ᾽ ἀπὸ θυμοῦ κτλ., ‘but you will be the more removed from my heart,’ i. e. out of favor with me.

[563] ἔσεαι, Attic “ἔσει.

τὸ δέ τοι κτλ., cf. l. 325.

[564] εἰ ... ἐστίν, simple present condition with nothing implied (GG. 647): ‘suppose this is as you say [“οὕτω”], 'tis my own affair [or ‘my pleasure’], I presume.’ In this idiomatic use “μέλλει” = Attic “ἔοικε”: “μέλλει εἶναι” = ‘it is like to be’ (present tense), ‘it is, very likely,’ or ‘presumably.’

[566] τοι, dative of advantage (interest), ‘for you,’ i. e. ‘from you’: cf. l. 67, “ἡμῖν.

χραίσμωσιν, ‘ward off,’ an aorist which previously (ll. 28 and 242) has been met in the sense of ‘help’; its subject is ὅσοι θεοὶ εἴσ᾽ κτλ., ‘all the gods that are on Olympus.’

εἴσ᾽ (“εἰσί”), cf. “κάκ᾽” (l. 105), “ἔμ᾽” (l. 133).

[567] ἀσσον, see note on l. 335.

ἰόνθ᾽ = “ἰόντα”, agreeing with “ἐμέ” understood; that this pronoun of the first person is to be supplied, is indicated distinctly enough by the clause “ὅτε ... ἐφείω.

ἐφ-είω (“ἵημι”) is inflected like “θείω”, § 149 (2).

[568] ἔδδεισεν, account for double “δ.§ 62. 1.

[569] καθῆστο, κάθ-ημαι.

φίλον, its force? § 114.

[572] ἐπὶ ἦρα (used by Homer in this formula only) φέρων, ‘bearing kindly service,’ ‘doing favor.’

[573] δὴ λοίγια ἔργα, cf. l. 518, where the expression is exclamatory; but the construction here is obviously different, for a complete predicate is supplied by “τάδ᾽ ἔσσεται κτλ.

τάδ᾽ε), meaning, § 120.

[574] σφῴ, § 110.

[575] ἐλαόνετον, literally ‘drive,’ ‘run’ (transitive); here figuratively, ‘keep going,’ ‘keep up.’

[576] δαιτὸς

ἐσθλῆς ἦδος (= “ἡδονή”), ‘enjoyment of a goodly feast.’— ἐπεὶ τὰ χερείονα (= “χείρονα”, cf. l. 114) νικᾷ, ‘since worse matters prevail.’ “τὰ χερείονα” means “τὰ κακά” (cf. l. 107), ‘rather’ than “τὰ ἀγαθά”.

[577] καὶ αὐτῇ περ νοεούσῃ, ‘although she is herself discreet.’

καὶ ... περ, see note on l. 131.

[579] νεικείῃσι, inflected like “ἐθέλῃσιν”, § 136.6; for “-ει-” see § 150.— σὺν ... ταράξῃ, tmesis.

580 εἴ περ, ‘just suppose.’

[581] στυφελίξαι, supply “ἡμᾶς”. The conclusion—‘he can do it’—is understood. Cf. l. 136.

[582] καθάπτεσθαι, syntax, § 213.

[583] ἵλαος, § 77.

[586] τέτλαθι, § 136.9.

[587] ἐν with “ὀφθαλμοῖσιν”, ‘before.’

[588] θεινομένην, in agreement with “σε” (l. 587): ‘lest I see you being beaten.’

[589] ἀντιφέρεσθαι limits “ἀργαλέος”. Cf. “μαντεύεσθαι”, l. 107.

[590] ἤδη γάρ ... ἄλλοτε, cf. “ἤδη γάρ ποτε”, l. 260.

μεμαῶτα, ‘eager,’ agrees with “με”.

[593] κάππεσον = “κατέπεσον”. For “καπ-”, § 47.

[596] μειδήσασα, translation of tense, § 186.

παιδός, ‘from her son.’

χειρί, ‘with [or ‘in’] her hand.’

[598] οἰνοχόει (“οἶνος, χέω”) ... “νέκταρ”, the poet seems unconscious of the original meaning and thinks only of the main idea, ‘poured.’ Compare Xen. Anab. II, 4, 12: “ἦν δὲ” [“τὸ τεῖχος”] “ᾠκοδομημένον”, ‘the wall was built’; yet “οἰκοδομέω” is literally to ‘build a house’ (“οἶκος” and “δέμω”, ‘build’). Other examples are not uncommon.

ἀφύσσων, ‘drawing off,’ or ‘dipping’ with a ladle. The gods who are used to Hebe and Ganymedes as cupbearers make merry over the awkward Hephaestus.

[599] ἐνῶρτο, ἐν-όρνυμι.

γέλος, second declension in Homer (= Attic “γέλως”, third declension); cf. similar nouns in this book: “μάρτυροι” (l. 338) and “ἔρον” (l. 469).

[602] Cf. l. 468.

[603] φόρμιγγος and Μουσάων (l. 604), like “δαιτός”, limit “ἐδεύετο”.

[606] κακκείοντες (“κατά” and “κεῖμαι”), cf. note on 16.852.

ἔβαν, cf. l. 391.

ἧχι = Attic “”, ‘where.’

[607] ἀμφιγυήεις, ‘lame in both legs,’ ‘the halting god,’ according to the ancient interpretation: “both-foot-halting god,” Chapman renders it. Many prefer a modern interpretation: ‘strong in both arms.’

[608] ἰδυίῃσι (Attic “εἰδυίαις”) πραπίδεσσιν, ‘with cunning mind.’ Other works of this god that are mentioned in the Iliad are: the aegis and scepter of Zeus (B 101, O 308 ff.); the arms of Achilles (18.478 ff.); the wonderful golden maidens who supported the lame god's steps (18.417); the automatic tripods (18.373 ff.); the breastplate of Diomedes (8.195) that formerly belonged to Glaucus (Z 235). Still other works are told of in the Odyssey.

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