previous next


[33] ὣς ἔφατ᾽ο) = Attic “οὕτως ἔφη.

ἔδδεισεν, for double “δ”, § 62.1; “ν” movable in spite of the following “δ᾽”(“έ”), § 50.

γέρων, § 119 (a).

[34] βῆ, accent, § 126.

παρὰ θῖνα, ‘along the strand.’

πολυφλοίσβοιο, imitative of the sound of the wind-swept sea.

[35] πολλά, object of “ἠρᾶθ᾽” (= “ἠρᾶτο”, from “ἀράομαι”): ‘earnestly prayed.’

γεραιός, use of article, § 119 (a).

[36] τόν, relative pronoun, § 118.4; cf. ‘that’ in English.

[37] μευ, enclitic pronoun, § 110; contraction, § 42.

ἀμφιβέβηκας, to be translated by present tense, ‘guardest,’ § 187. The metaphor involved is illustrated by the line:

ἀμφὶ δ᾽ ἄρ᾽ αὐτῷ βαῖν̓ ὥς τις περὶ πόρτακι μήτηρ” (P 4), ‘Menelaus strode before him [the slain Patroclus] like a cow before her calf,’ to give protection. Compare also E 299.

[38] ζαθέην, composition, § 160.

τε ἶφι, hiatus, § 61.21.

[39] εί ποτε κτλ., ‘if ever I roofed overhead a temple pleasing in thy sight.’ The temple plays no further part in the story of Chryses; but the altar does appear later. In the earlier times the gods were worshiped at altars in the open air; but some distinct references to temples will be noticed later in the poem (E 446-448; Z 274, 279, 297).

ἔπι, adverb, § 162, § 164.

νηόν, declension, § 77.

[40] κατὰ ... ἔκηα (Attic “κατέκαυσα”), § 163, § 165.

[41] ἠδ᾽έ), common Homeric equivalent of “καί.

κρήηνον (Attic “κρᾶνον”), from “κραιαίνω” (Attic “κραίνω”).

ἐέλδωρ, spelling, § 61.13.

[42] ‘May the Danaans pay for my tears by thy shafts.’ τίσειαν, syntax, § 201.

Δαναοί, another name for the ‘Greeks’ in general, regarded as the ‘people of Danaus,’ the mythical Argive king.

σοῖσι, meaning, § 113; declension, § 76.

βέλεσσιν, declined like “ἔπος”, § 91, § 83.

[43] τοῦ, personal pronoun, § 118.2.

[44] κατ᾽ Οὐλύμποιο καρήνων, ‘down from the summits of Olympus.’— Οὐλύμποιο = Attic “Ὀλύμπου.

καρήνων, declined, § 100.

κῆρ, accusative, ‘at heart.’

[45] τόξα, a single bow; plural because made of parts fitted together.

ὤμοισιν, declension, § 76; syntax, § 177.

φαρέτρην, spelling, § 64.

[46] χωομένοιο, of him ‘in his anger.’

[47] αὐτοῦ κινηθέντος, ‘as the god started up.’

ἤιε, Attic “ᾔει”, from “εἶμι.

ἐοικώς, for the original spelling cf. § 61.24.

[48] νεῶν, declension, § 101.

μέτα, adverb, § 162, § 164.

ἕηκεν, see note on l. 8.

[49] ‘And a dreadful clang arose from the silver bow.’ With the imitative words “ἔκλαγξαν” (l. 46) and “κλαγγή” compare “λίγξε βιός” (4.125), which expresses a similar idea.

ἀργυρέοιο, uncontracted, § 41.

[50] οὐρῆας, declined like “βασιλεύς”, § 86.

ἐπ-ῴχετο, ‘he assailed.’

[51] ‘But next he sped his keen shaft at the men themselves [“αὐτοῖσι”] and kept shooting.’—Either βέλος (note the long ultima) ἐχεπευκές illustrates ictus lengthening § 33) or the force of the original sigma of [“ς”]“εχεπευκές” is still felt.

[52] βάλλ᾽, elision, § 40.1.

αἰεί = Attic “ἀεί.

νεκύων, genitive of material with “πυραί” (cf. GG. 506).

θαμεῖαι, to be translated in the predicate, after the Greek order: ‘thickly,’ one after another.

[53] κῆλα = “βέλεα” (cf. l. 51).

[54] τῇ δεκάτῃ, ‘on the tenth day,’ like the Attic construction.

ἀγορήνδε, spelling, § 64; suffix, § 155.5.

καλέσσατο, double sigma, § 53.

[55] τῷ, personal pronoun, § 118.2; syntax, § 176.

φρεσί, φρένες, diaphragm of the body; used by the Greeks for the seat of thought and emotion; cf. English ‘heart.’—Here (Attic ‘Hera’) and Athene (Attic ‘Athena’) were hostile to the Trojans. Why?

[56] ῥα, § 49.1.

ὁρᾶτο, § 125. Homer uses the middle of this verb in active sense.

[57] ἤγερθεν, form, § 136.8.

[58] τοῖσι, dative of interest § 176), ‘rising up before them.’

δέ here has the force of a weakened “δή”, ‘then,’ § 31. It can not be translated in this place by ‘but’ or ‘and’; yet by some it is believed to have once had that force, even here, surviving as a relic of the time when, in primitive language, all clauses were coördinated—when there was no “hypotaxis,” but only “parataxis.”

[59] ἄμμε, pronoun of first person, § 110.

πλαγχθέντας, from “πλάζω”, —‘Now I think that we, driven back, shall return home again, if possibly we should escape death—if, in fact, both war and pestilence are at the same time to destroy the Achaeans.’

[60] εἴ κεν ... φύγοιμεν § 208) expresses a possibility more remote than “εἰ ... δαμᾷ” (l. 61).

[61] εἰ δή, ‘if in fact’ is nearly equivalent to ‘since in fact.’

δαμᾷ (future indicative, § 151) agrees with one subject only, like “χραίσμῃ”, l. 28.

[62] ἐρείομεν, form, § 148; hortatory.

[63] τε, observe that this word helps out the meter and also accompanies a general statement; it is often not to be translated.

[64] ‘Who may say [potential—or “hypothetical”—optative, § 206] why Phoebus Apollo has become so much angered.’

τόσσον, spelling, § 51.1.

[65] γ᾽ε), ‘he,’ with very slight emphasis.

εὐχωλῆς, ἑκατόμβης, genitives of cause; the vow may have been unfulfilled, the hecatomb neglected.

[66] ‘In the hope that when he has shared in the savor of unblemished lambs and goats, he may be willing to avert destruction from us’; cf. § 198.

αἰ = Attic “εἰ.

κνίσης, partitive genitive with “ἀντιάσας”.

[67] βούλεται, subjunctive? § 147.

ἡμῖν, dative of advantage (interest), ‘from us’; literally ‘for us.’

ἀπὸ ... ἀμῦναι, tmesis, § 163.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0 United States License.

An XML version of this text is available for download, with the additional restriction that you offer Perseus any modifications you make. Perseus provides credit for all accepted changes, storing new additions in a versioning system.

hide Display Preferences
Greek Display:
Arabic Display:
View by Default:
Browse Bar: