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[32]

[33] ὣς ἔφατ᾽ο) = Attic “οὕτως ἔφη.

ἔδδεισεν, for double “δ”, § 62.1; “ν” movable in spite of the following “δ᾽”(“έ”), § 50.

γέρων, § 119 (a).

[34] βῆ, accent, § 126.

παρὰ θῖνα, ‘along the strand.’

πολυφλοίσβοιο, imitative of the sound of the wind-swept sea.

[35] πολλά, object of “ἠρᾶθ᾽” (= “ἠρᾶτο”, from “ἀράομαι”): ‘earnestly prayed.’

γεραιός, use of article, § 119 (a).

[36] τόν, relative pronoun, § 118.4; cf. ‘that’ in English.

[37] μευ, enclitic pronoun, § 110; contraction, § 42.

ἀμφιβέβηκας, to be translated by present tense, ‘guardest,’ § 187. The metaphor involved is illustrated by the line:

ἀμφὶ δ᾽ ἄρ᾽ αὐτῷ βαῖν̓ ὥς τις περὶ πόρτακι μήτηρ” (P 4), ‘Menelaus strode before him [the slain Patroclus] like a cow before her calf,’ to give protection. Compare also E 299.

[38] ζαθέην, composition, § 160.

τε ἶφι, hiatus, § 61.21.

[39] εί ποτε κτλ., ‘if ever I roofed overhead a temple pleasing in thy sight.’ The temple plays no further part in the story of Chryses; but the altar does appear later. In the earlier times the gods were worshiped at altars in the open air; but some distinct references to temples will be noticed later in the poem (E 446-448; Z 274, 279, 297).

ἔπι, adverb, § 162, § 164.

νηόν, declension, § 77.

[40] κατὰ ... ἔκηα (Attic “κατέκαυσα”), § 163, § 165.

[41] ἠδ᾽έ), common Homeric equivalent of “καί.

κρήηνον (Attic “κρᾶνον”), from “κραιαίνω” (Attic “κραίνω”).

ἐέλδωρ, spelling, § 61.13.

[42] ‘May the Danaans pay for my tears by thy shafts.’ τίσειαν, syntax, § 201.

Δαναοί, another name for the ‘Greeks’ in general, regarded as the ‘people of Danaus,’ the mythical Argive king.

σοῖσι, meaning, § 113; declension, § 76.

βέλεσσιν, declined like “ἔπος”, § 91, § 83.

[43] τοῦ, personal pronoun, § 118.2.

[44] κατ᾽ Οὐλύμποιο καρήνων, ‘down from the summits of Olympus.’— Οὐλύμποιο = Attic “Ὀλύμπου.

καρήνων, declined, § 100.

κῆρ, accusative, ‘at heart.’

[45] τόξα, a single bow; plural because made of parts fitted together.

ὤμοισιν, declension, § 76; syntax, § 177.

φαρέτρην, spelling, § 64.

[46] χωομένοιο, of him ‘in his anger.’

[47] αὐτοῦ κινηθέντος, ‘as the god started up.’

ἤιε, Attic “ᾔει”, from “εἶμι.

ἐοικώς, for the original spelling cf. § 61.24.

[48] νεῶν, declension, § 101.

μέτα, adverb, § 162, § 164.

ἕηκεν, see note on l. 8.

[49] ‘And a dreadful clang arose from the silver bow.’ With the imitative words “ἔκλαγξαν” (l. 46) and “κλαγγή” compare “λίγξε βιός” (4.125), which expresses a similar idea.

ἀργυρέοιο, uncontracted, § 41.

[50] οὐρῆας, declined like “βασιλεύς”, § 86.

ἐπ-ῴχετο, ‘he assailed.’

[51] ‘But next he sped his keen shaft at the men themselves [“αὐτοῖσι”] and kept shooting.’—Either βέλος (note the long ultima) ἐχεπευκές illustrates ictus lengthening § 33) or the force of the original sigma of [“ς”]“εχεπευκές” is still felt.

[52] βάλλ᾽, elision, § 40.1.

αἰεί = Attic “ἀεί.

νεκύων, genitive of material with “πυραί” (cf. GG. 506).

θαμεῖαι, to be translated in the predicate, after the Greek order: ‘thickly,’ one after another.

[53] κῆλα = “βέλεα” (cf. l. 51).

[54] τῇ δεκάτῃ, ‘on the tenth day,’ like the Attic construction.

ἀγορήνδε, spelling, § 64; suffix, § 155.5.

καλέσσατο, double sigma, § 53.

[55] τῷ, personal pronoun, § 118.2; syntax, § 176.

φρεσί, φρένες, diaphragm of the body; used by the Greeks for the seat of thought and emotion; cf. English ‘heart.’—Here (Attic ‘Hera’) and Athene (Attic ‘Athena’) were hostile to the Trojans. Why?

[56] ῥα, § 49.1.

ὁρᾶτο, § 125. Homer uses the middle of this verb in active sense.

[57] ἤγερθεν, form, § 136.8.

[58] τοῖσι, dative of interest § 176), ‘rising up before them.’

δέ here has the force of a weakened “δή”, ‘then,’ § 31. It can not be translated in this place by ‘but’ or ‘and’; yet by some it is believed to have once had that force, even here, surviving as a relic of the time when, in primitive language, all clauses were coördinated—when there was no “hypotaxis,” but only “parataxis.”

[59] ἄμμε, pronoun of first person, § 110.

πλαγχθέντας, from “πλάζω”, —‘Now I think that we, driven back, shall return home again, if possibly we should escape death—if, in fact, both war and pestilence are at the same time to destroy the Achaeans.’

[60] εἴ κεν ... φύγοιμεν § 208) expresses a possibility more remote than “εἰ ... δαμᾷ” (l. 61).

[61] εἰ δή, ‘if in fact’ is nearly equivalent to ‘since in fact.’

δαμᾷ (future indicative, § 151) agrees with one subject only, like “χραίσμῃ”, l. 28.

[62] ἐρείομεν, form, § 148; hortatory.

[63] τε, observe that this word helps out the meter and also accompanies a general statement; it is often not to be translated.

[64] ‘Who may say [potential—or “hypothetical”—optative, § 206] why Phoebus Apollo has become so much angered.’

τόσσον, spelling, § 51.1.

[65] γ᾽ε), ‘he,’ with very slight emphasis.

εὐχωλῆς, ἑκατόμβης, genitives of cause; the vow may have been unfulfilled, the hecatomb neglected.

[66] ‘In the hope that when he has shared in the savor of unblemished lambs and goats, he may be willing to avert destruction from us’; cf. § 198.

αἰ = Attic “εἰ.

κνίσης, partitive genitive with “ἀντιάσας”.

[67] βούλεται, subjunctive? § 147.

ἡμῖν, dative of advantage (interest), ‘from us’; literally ‘for us.’

ἀπὸ ... ἀμῦναι, tmesis, § 163.

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