Book 15 (Ο）Ἀργεΐων, ‘and charmed [“quenched,” Chapman] the spirit of the Argives.’
ἐξαίσιον= ‘exceeding proper measure.’ The point of view of the poet is characteristically Greek.
 παλίωξιν παρὰ νηῶν ... Τρώων, ‘a rout [‘pursuit back’] of the Trojans from the ships.’ This is the phrase seen in the title of the present book (occurring l. 69 also); yet it is not strictly correct, for the rout does not begin until the next book.
 θησέμεναι, ‘to make, ‘to cause.’
 Lines 610-614 have from ancient times been suspected as an interpolation. They match the present context badly, for Zeus is known to be on Mount Ida, while “ἀπ᾽ αἰθέρος” (l. 610) implies Olympus; the expression “πλεόνεσσι ... μοῦνον ἐόντα” (l. 611) is scarcely intelligible; further the cause here given for honoring Hector, “μινυνθάδιος ... ἔσσεσθ᾽” (ll. 612 f.), is at variance with the reasons already introduced (ll. 596-599).
‘Even as a rock that projects into the measureless sea, facing the raging winds and exposed to the deep, firmly meets all the violent menaces of heaven and sea, staying fast itself.’
 τυτθόν, ‘by a little,’ ‘narrowly.’
 Neither ὅ γ᾽（ε) nor λέων has a finite verb. “λέων” is taken up in “ὃ δέ” (l. 635); while “ὅ γ᾽”（“ε”) recurs as “Ἕκτορι” (l. 637). The translation should supply verbs where the English idiom demands.
 ‘And among them is a herdsman that does not yet clearly know how to cope with a wild beast about the slaying of a crumpled-horned cow’; i. e. to prevent the slaying.
 ὑπέτρεσαν, gnomic aorist.
 ἐφόβηθεν, ‘fled,’ as regularly in Homer.βίῃ Ἡρακληείῃ is a periphrasis for ‘mighty Heracles.’ Translate, ‘used to go on the mission of lord Eurystheus to mighty Heracles.’ Eurystheus, fearing to meet Heracles personally, communicated with him through Copreus.
πατρὸς ... χείρονος is in apposition to “τοῦ”: literally ‘from him, a much worse father, he was born a better son.’ Pope paraphrases:
“The son redeem'd the honours of the race,
A son as generous as the sire was base.
 στρεφθεὶς ... μετόπισθεν, ‘as he turned back’ in flight to the ships. To understand how it was possible for Periphetes to trip on his shield, the great shield of the Mycenaean type must be called to mind; cf. Introduction, 23.
 Periphetes was indeed a warrior “at mischief taken” (cf. Dryden's Palamon and Arcite, III. 516); but he was not therefore spared by Hector, for this was no tournament of jousting knights.
 ἑταίρου, genitive of cause.
 ἐπί, ‘besides.’ The sentiment is imitated by Vergil
‘Now let every man remember his wife and his home, now let him recall the mighty deeds that gave his fathers glory.’ ὅττεῳ, two syllables, § 43.
 ὦσεν, cf. A 220. No previous mention has been made of a cloud surrounding the Greeks.
 πρός, ‘in the direction of.’
 ἀνήρ lacks a finite verb; so ὡς δ᾽ ὅτ᾽（ε), which literally would be rendered ‘and as [happens] when,’ must here be translated simply ‘like.’ —The idea is, like a skilful horseman Ajax leaped from deck to deck.πίσυρας § 108.4), a relic of Aeolic influence. συναείρεται, aorist subjunctive, ‘has hitched together.’
 ὃ δ᾽ ἔμπεδον κτλ., ‘while he with steady poise [“ἔμπεδον”] and sure feet [“ἀσφαλές”] continually vaults [“θρῴσκων”] from horse to horse in succession [“ἀμείβεται”], as they course along.’ The horseman is imagined as standing all the time.
 ‘So Hector rushed straight toward a dark-prowed ship, dashing against it.’νεός is a variety of partitive genitive.
 Τρωσὶν δ᾽ ἔλπετο θυμός means ‘the Trojans' spirit hoped’; then “ἑκάστου”, a possessive genitive with “στήθεσσιν”, is added, regardless of the preceding “Τρωσίν”. ‘Each man of the Trojans cherished in his breast the hope.’
 Πρωτεσίλαον, the first of the Achaeans to land from his ship on Trojan soil (B 698, 702). He was slain by a Dardanian as soon as he set foot on the shore.ἀικάς belongs to “ἀκόντων” as well as to “τόξων. ” ἀμφίς, ‘at a distance from one another,’ in contrast with “ἐγγύθεν ἱστάμενοι” (l. 710). ἀξίνη, ‘battleaxe.’ ξίφος (like “φάσγανον”, cf. l. 713), ‘sword.’ ἔγχος ἀμφίγυον, commonly explained as ‘double-headed spear,’ one end of which was used for thrusting, the other for fixing the spear in the ground (cf. 3.135) when it was not in use.
 ἄλλα ... ἄλλα, ‘some’ ... ‘others,’ in apposition to “φάσγανα” (l. 713). Swords fell from hands, if the hands that held them were maimed or cut off; from shoulders, if the shoulders and the sword belts that they carried were slashed through. The sword belt probably passed over the right shoulder; and the sword, when not in use, dangled in its sheath at the left side.
 We are to understand that Ajax, who had previously been springing from deck to deck of one ship after another, now stood at bay on the vessel of Protesilaus.
 ‘In which we may defend ourselves with citizens who would change the fortune of battle.’ἑτεραλκέα means ‘bringing defensive strength to the other side’ that previously was getting the worse of the conflict.
 ‘Therefore delivery lies in might, not in flinching from battle.’
 745, 746. οὔτασκε and οὖτα: this verb (“οὐτάω, οὐτάζω”), like “τύπτω, νύσσω”, and “πλήσσω”, is regularly used of wounding by a thrust, the weapon not leaving the hand. Cf. E 336, 16.26. When the poet wishes to express the idea of hitting with a missile that is hurled from a distance he uses “βάλλω”.