Ἀργεΐων, ‘and charmed [“quenched,” Chapman] the spirit of the Argives.’
ἐξαίσιον= ‘exceeding proper measure.’ The point of view of the poet is characteristically Greek.
 παλίωξιν παρὰ νηῶν ... Τρώων, ‘a rout [‘pursuit back’] of the Trojans from the ships.’ This is the phrase seen in the title of the present book (occurring l. 69 also); yet it is not strictly correct, for the rout does not begin until the next book.
 θησέμεναι, ‘to make, ‘to cause.’
 Lines 610-614 have from ancient times been suspected as an interpolation. They match the present context badly, for Zeus is known to be on Mount Ida, while “ἀπ᾽ αἰθέρος” (l. 610) implies Olympus; the expression “πλεόνεσσι ... μοῦνον ἐόντα” (l. 611) is scarcely intelligible; further the cause here given for honoring Hector, “μινυνθάδιος ... ἔσσεσθ᾽” (ll. 612 f.), is at variance with the reasons already introduced (ll. 596-599).
‘Even as a rock that projects into the measureless sea, facing the raging winds and exposed to the deep, firmly meets all the violent menaces of heaven and sea, staying fast itself.’
 τυτθόν, ‘by a little,’ ‘narrowly.’
 Neither ὅ γ᾽（ε) nor λέων has a finite verb. “λέων” is taken up in “ὃ δέ” (l. 635); while “ὅ γ᾽”（“ε”) recurs as “Ἕκτορι” (l. 637). The translation should supply verbs where the English idiom demands.
 ‘And among them is a herdsman that does not yet clearly know how to cope with a wild beast about the slaying of a crumpled-horned cow’; i. e. to prevent the slaying.
 ὑπέτρεσαν, gnomic aorist.
 ἐφόβηθεν, ‘fled,’ as regularly in Homer.βίῃ Ἡρακληείῃ is a periphrasis for ‘mighty Heracles.’ Translate, ‘used to go on the mission of lord Eurystheus to mighty Heracles.’ Eurystheus, fearing to meet Heracles personally, communicated with him through Copreus.
πατρὸς ... χείρονος is in apposition to “τοῦ”: literally ‘from him, a much worse father, he was born a better son.’ Pope paraphrases:
“The son redeem'd the honours of the race,
A son as generous as the sire was base.
 στρεφθεὶς ... μετόπισθεν, ‘as he turned back’ in flight to the ships. To understand how it was possible for Periphetes to trip on his shield, the great shield of the Mycenaean type must be called to mind; cf. Introduction, 23.
 Periphetes was indeed a warrior “at mischief taken” (cf. Dryden's Palamon and Arcite, III. 516); but he was not therefore spared by Hector, for this was no tournament of jousting knights.
 ἑταίρου, genitive of cause.