παρὰ καυλόν, ‘by the end of the shaft.’
 αὔτως, ‘in vain.’μάχης ἐπὶ μήδεα κεῖρεν, ‘thwarted [literally ‘mowed over,’ ‘cut short’] his plans for battle.’
 “May they not (as I fear they may) seize the ships and make it no longer possible to escape” (GMT. 261). For another example of this same subjunctive cf. B 195.
 θᾶσσον, ‘the sooner the better,’ ‘with all haste.’ἀγείρω, subjunctive. 131-133 = 3.330-332. 135-139 = 3.334-338, with slight changes in last line.
 ἔμμεναι denotes purpose.
 ἅρπυια, ‘the storm-wind,’ personified as female.
 ‘And in the side-traces he harnessed blameless Pedasus.’ Why the extra horse was taken, is a difficult question. Under ordinary circumstances it might be supposed that the trace-horse would take the place of one of the regular pair, in case either of the latter should be wounded; but here the regular pair were immortal. Yet, as an ancient commentator suggests, if Homer permitted the immortal gods to be wounded (as in Book V) why not immortal horses as well?