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[441] πάλαι πεπρωμένον αἴσῃ, ‘long since doomed to fate,’ i. e. to death.

[442] ἄψ implies a reversal of the doom.

[443] ἐπαινέομεν, future, § 151.

[445] ζών = “σάον” (a reading introduced by some editors).

[446] φράζεο, μή τις ... ἐθέλησι καὶ ἄλλος, ‘see to it that no one else too shall desire.’ This negative object clause is equivalent to the familiar Attic “ὅπως μή” with the future indicative (GMT. 341,352). The latter (Attic construction) Homer never uses.

[449] υἱέες, § 107.

ἐνήσεις (“ἐνίημι”), ‘will arouse in.’ Such sons of immortals were lalmenus, son of Ares; Menesthius, son of Spercheius; Eudorus, son of Hermes; Achilles, son of Thetis; and Aeneas, son of Aphrodite.

[454] ‘Send [i. e. ‘command to go’] Death and sweet Sleep to carry him.’

Θάνατον and Ὕπνον are subjects of φέρειν, on which see § 211.

[455] εἰς κε = Attic “ἕως ἄν”.

[456] In the pre-Homeric days of Greece it is probable that bodies were embalmed (Helbig, Hom. Epos^{2}, pp. 51-56). This is a natural inference from the remains found preserved at Myeenae, after three thousand years. And the following reminiscences of the custom appear in the Homeric poems: “ταρχύω” (ll. 456, 674; H 85) is undoubtedly another form of the later “ταριχεύω”, ‘embalm’ (cf. “τάριχος”, ‘mummy’), used by Herodotus, for example, in his description of the Egyptian process of mummifying (Herod. II, 85 ff.); the body of Patroclus was preserved by a sort of em balming, T 38, 39; the body of dead Hector was not burned until twenty-two days after his death (24.31, 413, 664, 784), and Achilles's body was kept seventeen days (Od. 24.63); jars of honey were laid away with the ashes of the dead (23.170, Od. 24.68), the significance of which act lies in the fact that honey was anciently used as a preservative.—In Homeric times the dead were burned and their ashes, gathered in urns, were buried. So “ταρχύειν” came to mean simply ‘bury.’ Over the ashes a mound of earth (“τύμβος”, l. 457) was raised, and surmounted by an upright gravestone (“στήλη”, l. 457).— In historical times cremation seems to have given way largely, but by no means entirely, to ordinary interment.

[457] τὸ γὰρ γέρας κτλ., Vergil's “qui solus honos Acheronte sub imo est” (Aen. XI, 23), ‘for this is the only boon in deepest Acheron.’

[465] τόν repeats the object, “Θρασύμηλον”.

[467] δεύτερος ὁρμηθείς: Patroclus was first to attack, Sarpedon ‘second’ (“δεύτερος”).

δέ continues the same subject, contrary to later usage. Cf. A 191.—Perhaps οὔτασεν is here used for “ἔβαλεν”: if so, the usage is exceptional. See note on O 745.

[469] μακών, μηκάομαι.

[470] τὼ δὲ διαστήτην, ‘the two other horses [the immortal pair] sprang apart.’

[471] σύγχυτ᾽ο) (“συγχέω”), ‘were entangled.’

παρήορος, the ‘tracehorse,’ Pedasus.

[472] τοῖο κτλ., ‘for this [the disorder of horses and reins] Automedon found an end,’ i. e. ‘remedy.’

[473] ἄορ is a synonym of “ξίφος” and “φάσγανον”. See notes on O 711 and 714.

παρὰ μηροῦ, ‘from the thigh,’ because the sheath of the sword hung by the thigh.

[474] οὐδ᾽ ἐμάτησεν, ‘without delay.’ Others render, ‘nor did he labor in vain.’

[475] ‘The two horses were set straight [in line with the pole of the chariot] and were pulled up tight in the reins.’

[476] συνίτην, σύνειμι (“εἶμι”).

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