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[215]

[219] With ἀριζήλη supply “γίγνηται”. A somewhat free version (partly taken from Tennyson's lines) is: ‘and “like the clear voice when a trumpet shrills” on account of life-rending enemies that beleaguer a town.’ The trumpet is blown to warn the townspeople against the foe; so the agency expressed by “δηίων ὕπο” is indirect; later writers would here rather use “διά” with the accusative [Monro, Homeric Grammar^{2}, § 204 (3)]. The trumpet was never used in battles of Homeric heroes; apparently the poet drew upon the life of his own day for a striking illustration.

[220] Note the scansion ( § 28, § 70).

[222] How account for the long ultima of “ἄιον”? § 37.

ὄπα is feminine (cf. A 604); so χάλκεον must here be used as an adjective of two endings.

[223] πᾶσιν ὀρίνθη θυμός, “the minds of all were startled” (Chapman).

[226] δεινόν, ‘terribly,’ with “δαιόμενον” (l. 227).

[231] ἀμφί, ‘about,’ used vaguely; a more definite word would be “ὑπό”: cf. the phrase “ὑπὸ δουρὶ δαμῆναι” (3.436, 4.479, 17.303), ‘be subdued under the spear,’ and “ὑπὸ δουρὶ πέρθαι” (16.708), ‘be sacked under the spear.’ The locative sense ‘around’ is not unsuited to “ὀχέεσσι”, however. Translate, ‘beneath their own chariots and spears.’ The situation is illustrated by a quotation from 16.378, 379, where likewise there was great confusion:

ὑπὸ δ᾽ ἄξοσι φῶτες ἔπιπτον πρηνέες ἐξ ὀχέων, δίφροι δ᾽ ἀνακυμβαλίαζον”.

‘And under the axles [of their own chariots] the men fell headlong from the cars, and the chariots fell rattling over.’ Here (18.231) there is the additional idea that the men were transfixed by their own (or possibly one another's) spears in the accident of falling.

[233] λεχέεσσι, same as “φέρτρῳ” (l. 236).

[240] ἀέκοντα νέεσθαι, ‘to go unwilling,’ i. e. to set before its time. The long third day of battle that began with “Λ”—the twenty-sixth day of the poem—is ending (cf. p. 114).

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