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[33] δ᾽ ἔστενε, the only audible mark, thus far, of Achilles's intense grief. Note the swift change of subject.

[34] δείδιε, Antilochus is again the subject; the form in this instance is commonly called a pluperfect with imperfect ending, and so translated by the past tense.—The subject of ἀπαμήσειε is Achilles.

σιδήρῳ, ‘with his iron’ (sword). The use of bronze was of course older than that of iron. Weapons and instruments of bronze were characteristic of the Mycenaean age. They belonged also to the early Homeric age—at least to that part during which the epic style was developing. So the poets sang on about weapons of bronze even after the use of iron became common. The knowledge of iron must have been widespread, however, when the Iliad was completed. The allusion in this line is a bit of evidence in the matter. —Cauer, Homerkritik, pp. 179-187. Professor Ridgeway (The Early Age of Greece, vol. i, pp. 294-296) also calls attention to the general use of iron in the Homeric age “for all kinds of cutting instruments, and for agricultural purposes.” This prevalence of iron is in fact one of the chief differences between the Homeric and the Mycenaean civilizations.

[35] ᾤμωξεν, Achilles is subject.

[36] Thetis, it seems, had returned to the home of her father. This was in the deep sea

μεσσηγὺς δὲ Σάμου τε καὶ Ἴμβρου παιπαλοέσσης” (24.78).

[39] 39-49. These “Hesiodic” lines are probably a late addition to the poem. Vergil introduces some of the names,

laeva tenent Thetis et Melite Panopeaque virgo,
Nesace Spioque Thaliaque Cymodoceque.

[50] ‘And the shining-white cave, too, was filled with them.’

[53] εἴδετ᾽ε) (“οἶδα”), Attic “εἰδῆτε.

ἔνι, § 167.

[56] δ᾽ ἀνέδραμεν κτλ., parenthetical. The conclusion to l. 55 begins with l. 57; “ἐπιπροέηκα” (l. 58) is subordinate in importance, however, to “ὑποδέξομαι” (l. 59).

[57] φυτὸν ὣς γουνῷ ἀλωῆς, ‘like a tree on the orchard-slope.’

[61] μοι, dative of interest, ‘before me,’ ‘in the world with me.’

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