τά refers to the same cattle as “οἳ δέ”, now regarded as ‘things.’
 ἔπι, ‘in charge’ of the cattle.πολὺν κέλαδον παρὰ βουσίν, ‘great hubbub over the cattle.’
 ἕλκε (subject, “κήρ”), in place of which “ἕλκουσα” might be expected; but the poet is busy picturing the scene in striking phrase; he does not take the trouble to heed logical construction (Cauer, Homerkritik, p. 261). Cf. l. 175 and note.ποδοῖιν § 172), ‘by the feet.’
 ὡμίλευν, subject, the men.
 ἐτίθει = “ἔτευξ̓”（“ε”) (l. 483), “ποίησε” (l. 490). It is probable that the series of pictures beginning with this line is intended to illustrate occupations of the various seasons (ll. 541-589). Spring is represented by the plowing (ll. 541-549), summer by the reaping and harvest feast (ll. 550-560), autumn by the vintage (ll. 561-572), and winter by the herding (ll. 573589). The last scene is also marked as belonging to winter by the mention of the ‘noisy river’ (“ποταμὸν κελάδοντα”, l. 576), for in Greece the rivers are swollen only at the end of the rainy season of autumn (Reichel).ἀν᾽ ὄγμους, ‘along the furrows.’
 πέρι, ‘exceeding great’ wonder.
 πάρεχον, ‘supplied’ sheaves, to the binders.
 The feast is prepared with due reference to the sacrificial side (cf. “ἱερεύσαντες”), which is regularly seen in Homeric banquets.
 ‘[Women] were sprinkling white barley in abundance [on the meat] for the reapers' dinner.’ In the Odyssey also (Od. 14.77) we read that Eumaeus, the swineherd, roasted pork for Odysseus; then he served it, all hot; ‘and he sprinkled white barley’ thereon (“ὃ δ᾽ ἄλφιτα λευκὰ πάλυνεν”).