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Book 19 (Τ

This line marks the beginning of the twenty-seventh day of the poem—the fourth day of battle, which is the last that the Iliad contains. The day is not ended until the twenty-second book (X) is done.

[3] δ᾽έ), Thetis.

[8] ἐάσομεν = “ἐάσωμεν”.

[9] ἐπεὶ δὴ πρῶτα, ‘since once for all,’ like A 235.

[10] δέξο, § 131.

[16] ὡς ... ὥς, like A 512, 513.—With the sentiment a scholiast compares Od. 16.294 (= Od. 19.13): “αὐτὸς γὰρ ἐφέλκεται ἄνδρα σίδηρος”, ‘steel alone draws a man to itself,’ i. e. even the sight of weapons fires men. Compare note on 18.34.

[21] οἰ̔̂ ἐπιεικὲς κτλ., ‘such as 'tis meet for the works of the immortals to be, but for no mortal man to finish.’

[24] μοι, ‘before my eyes,’ or ‘ah me!’ Cf. 18.61.

υἱόν is naturally and simply taken as object of “καδδῦσαι” (“καταδῦσαι”) in the next line; like “καταδῦσα Διὸς δόμον” (8.375), ‘entering the house of Zeus.’ Cf. “μιν ... ἔδυ”, l. 16. Some editors prefer to make it divide with “νεκρόν” (l. 26) the function of object of “ἀεικίσσωσι”.

[27] ἒκ δ᾽ αἰὼν πέφαται (root “φεν”), ‘for his life is slain and fled’ (“ἔκ”).— σαπήῃ, supply “νεκρός” as subject.

[30] τῷ, ‘for him,’ i. e. ‘from him.’

[31] μυίας, in apposition to “φῦλα” (l. 30), instead of “μυιάων”, as B 469.

[32] κῆται, probably for an original “κέεται” = “κείεται”, subjunetive of “κεῖμαι”.

[33] αἰεὶ τῷδ᾽ ἔσται κτλ., ‘always shall his flesh be sound [as now] or even better’ than now; for the gods are all-powerful; “θεοὶ δέ τε πάντα δύνανται” (Od. 10.306).

[35] ἀποειπών, with ictus on “ο.§ 39. Cf. “σμερδαλέα ἰάχων” (l. 41).

[39] κατὰ ῥινῶν, ‘down through the nostrils.’ For the embalming see note on 16.456.

[42] The sense is: even those that formerly remained behind among the collected ships on this occasion went to the assembly (l. 45).

43, 44. ‘Both those that were pilots and held the rudders of the ships and those that were stewards.’

[46] δέ, ‘although,’ like 18.248.

[47] Diomedes had been wounded by Paris in the foot with an arrow (11.377); Odysseus had been hit by Socus in the side with a spear (11.437).

[50] μετὰ πρώτῃ ἀγορῇ, ‘in the front of the assembly,’ a place of distinction.

56, 57. ἄρ τι κτλ., ‘as it now appears [“ἄρ”], was this strife [“τόδε”] really [“”] better for us both, for you and for me, when we two’ etc.

61, 62. τῷ, ‘then.’—ὀδὰξ ἕλον κτλ., ‘would have bitten the immeasurable earth, at the hands of their enemies’; the poet has in mind the throes of death.

ἐμεῦ ἀπομηνίσαντος, cf. I 426.

[63] μέν, ‘to be sure.’

τό, ‘this,’ i. e. the matter of our strife; supply “ἦν”.

[65] Cf. note on 16.60.

[67] οὐδέ τί με χρή, cf. I 496, 16.721.

[71] ἰαυέμεν, the poet seems to have in mind the boastful words of Polydamas (18.259), when he puts this expression into the mouth of Achilles. —ἀλλά τιν᾽ οἴω κτλ., ‘but I think many a one will joyfully bend his knees to rest.’ Compare with the idea here expressed 18.270 f. The strain of flight on the Trojans' part is imagined as intense.

[276] αἰψηρήν, adjective in sense of adverb, ‘quickly.’

[278] δῶρα: these are the gifts which were once before (in I) offered to Achilles through Odysseus, and rejected by him. But now (in T) Odysseus, accompanied by the sons of Nestor and other Greeks, has brought them from Agamemnon's lodge to Achilles, in the assembly. The poet enumerated them a few lines before this:

ἑπτὰ μὲν ἐκ κλισίης τρίποδας φέρον οὕς οἱ ὑπέστη,
αἴθωνας δὲ λέβητας ἐείκοσι, δώδεκα δ᾽ ἵππους:
ἐκ δ; ἄγον αἶψα γυναῖκας ἀμύμονα ἔργα ἰδυίας
ἕπτ᾽, ἀτὰρ ὀγδοάτην Βρισηίδα καλλιπάρῃον.
χρυσοῦ δὲ στήσας Ὀδυσεὺς δέκα πάντα τάλαντα
ἦρχ᾽, ἅμα δ᾽ ἄλλοι δῶρα φέρον κούρητες Ἀχαιῶν

Agamemnon then sacrificed and swore a solemn oath that he had not laid hand on Briseis (ll. 249-266). Cf. I 264-276.

[281] εἰς ἀγέλην: Achilles seems to have had a number of horses taken from the enemy, apparently chariot-steeds whose masters he had slain.

[284] ἀμφ᾽ αὐτῷ χυμένη (“χέω”), similar in meaning to “Πατρόκλῳ περικείμενον” (l. 4).

[287] Πάτροκλε, note the short penult § 4).—μοι δειλῇ κτλ., ‘dearest to my wretched heart.’

δειλῇ of course agrees with “μοι”.—For construction of θυμῷ compare A 24.

[290] ἂψ ἀνιοῦσ᾽α), ‘on my return’; she has been absent since A 348.

ὥς μοι κτλ., ‘how evil after evil always waits on me!’

[291] ἄνδρα, perhaps Mynes (l. 296); but Homer does not inform us.

[293] μοι μία ... μήτηρ, cf. 3.238.

[294] With “κασιγνήτους” (l. 293) a participle in agreement—like “δεδαϊγμένους”—after “εἶδον” (l. 292) would be expected; instead the poet breaks off the grammatical sequence (making an “anacoluthon’) and begins a new sentence at this point: οἳ πάντες, ‘they all.’

[297] κλαίειν, to be taken closely with “ἔασκες” (l. 295).

[298] ἄξειν: editors commonly supply ‘Achilles’ as subject of this infinitive and of “δαίσειν” (l. 299); the sudden change of subject is not at all un-Homeric.

[393] λέπαδν᾽α), ‘breast-bands,’ broad strips of leather passing about the breasts and shoulders of horses, like collars, and fastened to the yoke. See illustration in the Vocabulary.

ἕσαν, ‘put,’ ‘set,’ commonly taken as aorist of “ἵημι”, may also come from “ἕννυμι” or “ἕζω”.

[396] ἐφ᾽ ἵπποιιν, ‘on the chariot,’ as usual.

[401] ‘Now bethink yourselves how to save your charioteer in some other [i. e. ‘better’] way’ than you cared for Patroclus.

σαωσέμεν is probably a mixed aorist infinitive § 153). By ‘charioteer’ Achilles means himself, although strictly the word designates Automedon.

[406] ζεύγλης, perhaps the cushion under the yoke to ease the horses' necks. See the Vocabulary.

[409] A reminder of Thetis's words, 18.96.

[410] θεός, cf. note on l. 417.

[415] νῶι δὲ καί κτλ., ‘for we two would race even with the blast of Zephyrus.’ their father, according to 16.150.

[417] θεῷ τε καὶ ἀνέρι, it is the dying Hector who reveals their names: “Πάρις καὶ Φοῖβος Ἀπόλλων”, X 359.

[418] ἐρινύες κτλ., ‘the Erinyes restrained his voice,’ for, says the scholiast, they are watchful against violations of the law of nature. There is no doubt that Homer has lately been lapsing into fairy-land.

[421] = “ὅτι”.

[423] πρὶν Τρῶας ἅδην ἐλάσαι πολέμοιο, ‘until I have given the Trojans quite enough of war’; “ἅδην” (originally an accusative) “ἐλάσαι” means literally^{4} to drive to satiety.’

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