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Book 22 (Χ

See note on T 1.

πεφυζότες, ‘panic-stricken’; cf. “φύζα”, I 2.

[7] Φοῖβος Ἀπόλλων, who had assumed the likeness of Trojan Agenor (as related 21.600).

[9] αὐτὸς θνητὸς ἐών agrees with the subject of “διώκεις” (l. 8); θεὸν ἄμβροτον, with the object “με” (l. 8). ‘And have you not even yet discovered [me = “με”, an instance of prolepsis] that I am a god?’ asks Apollo in derision.

[11] Another taunting question: ‘really now, are you not at all interested in the battle with the Trojans, whom you have routed?’

Τρώων πόνος = “τὸ κατὰ τῶν Τρώων ἔργον” (scholium). “Τρώων” seems to be objective genitive.

[12] ἄλεν, εἴλω.

[13] τοι μόρσιμος, ‘at your hand doomed to die.’

[16] κτλ., ‘else surely’ etc.

[19] τίσιν, accusative of “τίσις”.

[20] τισαίμην ... παρείη, probably both verbs would be imperfect indicatives in Attic Greek § 207.1), as protasis and apodosis of a present contrary to fact condition.

[21] μέγα φρονέων, ‘in high spirits.’

[22] Note quantity of ultima of σευάμενος.—Regularly two horses draw the Homeric chariot; to one of such a pair Achilles is compared.

[23] τιταινόμενος πεδίοιο, ‘stretching over the plain’ § 171), i. e. galloping at full speed.

[24] λαιψηρά, for “λαιψηρῶς”.

[26] πεδίοιο, as in l. 23.

[27] ώς τ᾽ ἀστέῤ (l. 26), ὅς ῥα κτλ., ‘like the star that rises in the late summer-time.’

ὀπώρης, genitive of “time within which.”

[30] τέτυκται = “ἐστί”.

[31] Imitated by Vergil,

Sirius ardor,
Ille sitim morbosque ferens mortalibus aegris.

‘The heat of Sirius—that brings thirst and plagues to wretched men.’

[34] ἀνασχόμενος, object understood, “χεῖρας.

ἐγεγώνει (from “γέγωνα”), ‘he called out.’

[38] μοι, dative of person interested: ‘I pray you.’

ἀνέρα τοῦτον, ‘the man yonder,’ your foe.

[41] σχέτλιος, an exclamation: ‘implacable’ (Achilles)! Cf. I 639.— αἴθε θεοῖσι κτλ., a grim wish, the sting lying in “ὅσσον ἐμοί” (l. 42). It amounts to “εἴθε ἐχθρὸς τοῖς θεοῖς γένοιτο” (scholium).

[46] Lycaon and Polydorus have both been slain by Achilles in the course of the present day's battle.

[47] ἀλέντων (“εἴλω”), genitive absolute with “Τρώων”.

[49] τ᾽ ... ἔπειτα, ‘surely in that case.’

[51] πολλά, a ‘large dowry’; see note on l. 472.

[59] πρὸς δ᾽έ), ‘and besides.’ “πρός” is an adverb here.—‘Have pity on me, unfortunate that I am [τὸν δύστηνον], while I yet live.’

[60] ἐπὶ γήραος οὐδῷ, ‘on the threshold of old age,’ i. e. at the end of life, when one's race has been run; the threshold from which one steps into death.

[61] ἐπ-ιδόντα, ‘after beholding’ many evils, which are enumerated in the following lines.

[62] ἑλκηθείσας, cf. Z 465.

[65] νυούς, ‘daughters-in-law.’

[66] πρώτῃσι θύρῃσιν, ‘at the front gate,’ the entrance into the courtyard (“αὐλή”), guarded by great folding doors (“θύρῃσιν”); also referred to below (l. 71), “ἐν προθύροισι”.

[67] ἂν (l. 66) ... “ἐρύουσιν”, future indicative § 190).

[68] τύψας ἠὲ βαλών, ‘smiting’ (perhaps with a sword) ‘or hitting from afar’ (as with a hurled spear); so the words are commonly distinguished; cf. note on O 745.

[70] οἵ, ‘these,’ i. e. the dogs.

πέρι, like 16.157.

[71] κ᾽ε) (l. 70) ... “κείσοντ᾽”(αι), § 190.—νέῳ δέ τε κτλ., ‘but for a young man it is in all respects becoming’ etc.

[73] πάντα, subject of “ἐστί”, to be supplied.

ὅττι φανήῃ, ‘whatever appears.’

[80] κόλπον ἀνιεμένη, ‘undoing the bosom’ or ‘baring the bosom.’ Perhaps with her left hand Hecabe unclasped her peplus at the right shoulder; then with the right hand (“ἑτέρηφι”) she lifted up her breast. Her left breast remained covered. On women's dress see Introduction, 17.

ἑτέρηφι, literally ‘with her other’ (hand).

[82] τάδε, ‘this breast of mine.’

[83] ἐπέσχον, in meaning the same as “ἐπισχών”, I 489.

[84] φίλε τέκνον, agreement according to sense, as below (l. 87), “θάλος, ὅν”.

[85] μηδὲ πρόμος κτλ., ‘and do not stand as champion against this foe.’ Cf. l. 38.

[86] σχέτλιος, cf. l. 41.

[88] οὐδ᾽ ἄλοχος πολύδωρος, supply “κλαύσεται”.—For πολύδωρος cf. note on Z 394.

ἄνευθε ... μέγα νῶιν, ‘very far from us.’

[91] πολλά, for quantity of ultima see § 38.

[94] βεβρωκὼς κακὰ φάρμακ᾽α) = Vergil's “mala gramina pastus” (Aen. II, 471).

[95] ἑλισσόμενος περὶ χειῇ, ‘coiling around in his hole,’ cf. A 317.

[101] The speech of Polydamas occurs in 18.254 ff.

[102] ὕπο, ‘during.’

τήνδ᾽ε), the night just past.

[109] ἄντην, with an understood “ἐλθόντα”, agreeing (as does “κατακτείναντα”) with “ἐμέ”, the understood subject of “νέεσθαι”: it would be far better for me to meet Achilles ‘face to face’ and then to slay him and return, or to be slain by him in a glorious struggle.

[110] αὐτῷ may be dative of agent with “ὀλέσθαι” (cf. “Ἀχιλῆι δαμασθείς”, l. 55); or it may be taken with “ἐμοί” (l. 108) in the sense, ‘or myself to be slain.’—The force of κεν is not obvious, for the infinitive does not stand in indirect discourse. The reading may be wrong.

[111] A long protasis begins here and continues through l. 121; there the construction abruptly ends. The poet neglects to supply the apodosis.

[113] ἀντίος ἔλθω, like “ἀντίος ἐλθών”, B 185, with genitive.

[114] Ἑλένην καὶ κτήμαθ᾽ (= “κτήματα”), objects of “δωσέμεν” (l. 117), which is an infinitive in indirect discourse after “ὑπόσχωμαι”.

[116] τ᾽ ἔπλετο νείκεος ἀρχή, ‘which [i. e. the carrying off of Helen and the treasures] was the beginning of the strife.’ The relative agrees with the predicate noun; its antecedent is the general idea that has preceded, rather than any particular word or words.

117, 118. Ἀτρεΐδῃσιν, indirect object of “δωσέμεν.

ἄγειν expresses purpose.—Before ἅμα δ᾽ ἀμφίς understand “εἰ δέ κεν ὑπόσχωμαι”, ‘and if I promise that at the same time we will divide the other treasures equally with the Achaeans.’

ἀμφίς means here (as 18.502, B 13) ‘into two [op posed] parts.’ The same sort of proposition for raising a siege was alluded to in 18.511; and perhaps, as a scholiast suggests, the half of the wealth of Troy is the “ποινή” which Agamemnon announced that he would fight for (3.290).

[119] Τρωσίν, ‘from the Trojans.’

μετόπισθε, ‘afterward.’

γερούσιον ὅρκον, ‘an oath sworn by the elders’ in behalf of the people.—With “ἕλωμαι” understand “εἰ δέ κεν”.

[121] This verse, wanting in the best MS., Venetus A, and others, may have crept in from 18.512.

[123] ‘I fear I shall come and supplicate him, while he will not pity me,’ Hector's hurried way of saying, ‘I fear that when I come’ etc., ‘he will not pity me.’ With this use of the independent subjunctive with “μή”, implying fear, compare B 195, 16.128, 18.8, and GMT. 261. But according to Kühner-Gerth § 394.4, b), “μὴ ... ἵκωμαι” is a hortatory subjunctive, like “δύω”. Z 340, “ἴδωμ̓”(“αι”), X 450; the meaning then would be: ‘let me not’ or ‘I will not come and supplicate him, for he will not pity me.’

[125] αὔτως, ‘just as I am,’ i. e. unarmed.

[126] ‘By no means may I now chat with him, “beginning at the oak or rock,” as a maid and a lad gossip.’

ἀπὸ δρυὸς οὐδ᾽ ἀπὸ πέτρης ὀαριζέμεναι is a gnomic expression (“παροιμία”) which seems to allude to old folk-stories (e. g. how the first men grew out of trees and rocks). A scholiast interprets it, “ληρῶδες ἀρχαιολογίας διηγεῖσθαι”, which amounts pretty nearly to ‘make silly gossip over ancient stories.’ Some prefer to interpret the words literally of a maid and a young shepherd talking ‘from an oak or rock’ where they are sitting.

[130] εἴδομεν (i. e. “εἰδῶμεν”), cf. Z 340 and § 193.

[133] Πηλιάδα μελίην, cf. 16.143 f.

[137] φοβηθείς, ‘in flight.’

[139] Cf.

quam facile accipiter saxo sacer ales ab alto
consequitur pennis sublimem in nube columbam,
comprensamque tenet pedibusque eviscerat uncis.

‘As easily as the falcon, bird of augury, from his high cliff overtakes in flight a dove soaring in the clouds, and seizes and holds her, and rends her with his crooked talons.’

[141] ὀξὺ λεληκώς (“λάσκω”), ‘with shrill cry.’

[142] ταρφέ᾽α), ‘again and again.’

[145] ἐρινεόν, mentioned Z 433.

[146] They ran along the wagon-road under the city-wall; yet the road seems to have been somewhat distant from the wall.

[148] For quantity of ultima of ἀναΐσσουσι see note on B 465.

[151] θέρεϊ, ‘in the summer.’

[153] ἐπ᾽ αὐτάων ... ἐγγύς, ‘near by them.’

156 = I 403.

[157] With φεύγων supply “ μέν”, i. e. Hector

[160] ποσσίν, ‘in the foot-race.’ Cf.

neque enim levia aut ludicra petuntur
praemia, sed Turni de vita et sanguine certant,

said of the struggle between Aeneas and Turnus. “No trivial prize is play'd, for on the life
Or death of Turnus, now depends the strife.
”—Dryden.

[163] τό is demonstrative, agreeing with “ἄεθλον”. A free rendering is ‘there.’

[164] ἀνδρός limits “ἄεθλον”, a prize “in grateful honour of the mighty dead” (Pope). The allusion is to funeral games.

[176] δαμάσσομεν, for meaning cf. 16.438.

179-181 = 16.441-443.

[183] Τριτογένεια: this epithet, best rendered ‘Tritogeneia,’ was not quite understood by the Greeks themselves. See note on B 103.

θυμῷ πρόφρονι, ‘in earnest.’

[188] The poet who describes this race can hardly have thought of the heroes as armed with the big, heavy shields.

[189] ὄρεσφι = “ἐν ὄρεσι” or “διὰ ὀρέων”.

[190] Homer uses “διὰ” with accusative where Attie Greek uses the genitive. Cf. note on B 57.

[192] ἀλλά, ‘yet’ the dog.

194-196. ‘And as often as he made for the Dardanian gate, to dash before it [i. e. ‘to take refuge’] under the well-built towers, in the hope that’ etc. “ὁρμάω” with the genitive is illustrated also in 4.335, “Τρώων ὁρμήσειε”, ‘make for the Trojans.’—It is possible, however, to understand ἀίξασθαι as complementary infinitive, so that the construction becomes, ‘and as often as he started to rush before the Dardanian gates’; then “πυλάων” would limit “ἀντίον”.—For Δαρδανιάων see note on B 809.

[196] οἱ, ‘from him.’

[197] ‘Just so often Achilles headed him off [“παραφθάς”] before [“προπάροιθεν”] he escaped, and drove him back [“ἀποστρέψασκε”] to the plain.’

[198] ποτὶ πτόλιος, ‘on the side of the city,’ i. e. on the inside.

[199] Cf.

Ac velut in somnis, oculos ubi languida pressit
nocte quies, nequiquam avidos extendere cursus
velle videmur, et in mediis conatibus aegri
auccidimus, non lingua valet, non corpore notae
sufficiunt vires, nec vox aut verba sequuntur:
sic Turno, quacumque viam virtute petivit,
cuccessum dea dira negat.

And as, when heavy sleep has clos'd the sight,
The sickly fancy labours in the night:
We seem to run; and destitute of force,
Our sinking limbs forsake us in the course:
In vain we heave for breath; in vain we cry:
The nerves unbrac'd their usual strength deny,
And on the tongue the faultering accents die:
So Turnus far'd, whatever means he try'd,
All force of arms, and points of art employ'd,
The fury flew athwart, and made th' endeavour void.

”—Dryden.

δύναται, supply “τις”.

[200] ... τόν ... , ‘the one’ ... ‘the other’ ... ‘the other.’

[201] , Achilles; τόν, Hector; οὐδ᾽ ὅς, ‘nor the latter’ (Hector).

[202] ‘How would Hector have escaped death’—not ultimately, of course, but—‘even up to this time unless’ etc.?

[205] ἀνένευε, ‘nodded “no.”’

[212] ἕλκε δὲ μέσσα λαβών, ‘and taking them [“τάλαντα”, the balances] by the middle, he raised them up.’ The heavier fate was the doomed one.

[213] ᾤχετο, subject, “αἴσιμον ἦμαρ”, i. e. “κήρ”.

[216] 217. νῶι ἔολπα ... οἴσεσθαι κτλ., ‘I think that we two shall carry off great glory’ etc.

[219] πεφυγμένον γενέσθαι, cf. Z 488.

220 μάλα πολλὰ πάθοι, ‘should give himself ever so much trouble.’

[229] ἠθεῖ᾽ε), cf. Z 518.

[231] στέωμεν, second aorist subjunctive of “ἵστημι”. A preferable spelling would be the regular “στήομεν§ 149), with “η” pronounced short, as in “δήιος” often; some MSS. in fact read “στέομεν”. The form in the text must be pronounced with synizesis.

[234] γνωτῶν, ‘brothers,’ as in 3.174.

[235] νοέω φρεσί = “ἐν νῷ ἔχω”.

[236] ὅς, irregularly lengthened.

[250] σ᾽ε) ... “φοβήσομαι”, ‘will flee from you.’

[253] ἕλοιμι, in sense of ‘slay’; its passive is “ἁλοίην”.

[254] θεοὺς ἐπιδώμεθα (“ἐπι-δίδωμι”), ‘let us take the gods to ourselves’ as witnesses: ‘let us make’ them ‘our’ witnesses.

[255] ἁρμονιάων, used only here in the figurative meaning, ‘compact.’

[265] φιλή-μεναι, § 131.

[266] ἕτερον, ‘either you or I’; cf. E 288, 289.

[268] παντοίης κτλ., cf. Matthew Arnold's Sohrab and Rustum:Speak not to me of truce, and pledge, and wine!
Remember all thy valour; try thy feints
And cunning!

[271] δαμάει, future § 151).

[274] ἠλεύατο, ἀλέομαι.

[279] οὐδ᾽ ἄρα πώ τι ... ἠείδης, ‘and after all, it seems, you do not know’ etc. Cf. note on 3.183.

[280] ἠείδης, § 136.10.

τοι ἔφης γε, ‘to be sure [or ‘although’] you thought you did.’ Cf. 16.61, 3.215.

[281] ἐπίκλοπος ... μύθων, ‘deceitful of speech’; with τις, ‘a man of cunning words.’ You think you can frighten me by your bold speech so that I shall run, as before; and then you may transfix me as I flee; but you shall not (l. 283); I will face you squarely now (l. 284).

[284] ἰθὺς μεμαῶτι (“μοι”), ‘as I press straight on’ to meet you.—“δόρυ” is understood with ἔλασσον.

[285] εἴ τοι ἔδωκε θεός, in ironical reference to ll. 270 f., where Achilles boasts of Athene as his ally.

[286] ὡς ... κομίσαιο, for construction see note on 18.107.

[293] οὐδ᾽ ἄλλ̓ ἔχε μείλινον ἔγχος: what had become of his second spear, if he carried one, the poet does not say. See note on 16.477.

[294] In 11.32-35 Agamemnon's shield is described; ‘and on it were twenty bosses of tin, all white.’ In this description there is a suggestion as to the meaning of λευκάσπιδα.

[301] γάρ κτλ., ‘long since, it seems, this must have been the pleasure of Zeus’ etc. The comparative φίλτερον means that this doom of Hector ‘rather’ than any other fate was the pleasure of Zeus.

[305] ‘But [only] when I have done some great deed and one for men hereafter to learn of.’ Cf. B 119.

[307] How may one account for the quantity of τό? § 37.

[308] ἀλείς, ‘gathering himself together,’ from “εἴλω”.

[313] πρόσθεν ... κάλυψεν, for meaning compare note on E 315.

[315] τετραφάλῳ, see Introduction, 33.

[316] ἃς ... ἵει ... θαμείας, ‘which [plumes] Hephaestus let fall thick’ etc.

[319] ἀπέλαμπ᾽ε), supply “σέλας”, ‘radiance,’ as subject—unless the verb be used impersonally.

[321] ὅπῃ εἴξειε μάλιστα, to find ‘where it [“χρώς”] would best give way’ to his spear. Or the verb may be used impersonally (cf. 18.520), ‘where there was the best opportunity.’

[322] This difficult line seems to contain two expressions, parallel in meaning, either of which may be eliminated without affecting the sense:

(a) “τοῦ δὲ καὶ ἄλλο μὲν ἔχε χρόα χάλκεα τεύχη”, ‘now bronze armor protected his body in other parts’ [literally ‘as for the rest’].

(b) “τοῦ δὲ καὶ τόσον μὲν ἔχε χρόα χάλκεα τεύχη”, ‘now bronze armor protected nearly all [literally ‘so far protected’] his body.’

Construction (b) has been explained in a note on 18.378; it occurs also in 4.130. The combination of the two is found again in 23.454.

[324] φαίνετο δ᾽έ), subject, “χρώς”: ‘but his flesh was exposed’; we say, ‘he was exposed.’— κληῖδες κτλ., ‘where the collar-bones part the neck from the shoulders.’

[325] λαυκανίην, ‘at the gullet,’ may be regarded as an appositive to “αὐχέν᾽”(“α”) (l. 324). This construction has been from ancient times recognized as difficult.

ἵνα τε κτλ., Vergil's “qua fata celerrimaAen. XII, 507).

[329] ὄφρα κτλ., the purpose is not that of the spear (“μελίη”, l. 328), but of the fate (“μοῖρα”, l. 303) that directed it.

333, 334. τοῖο δ᾽ ἄνευθεν κτλ., ‘while distant from him I—his avenger, far mightier [than you]—was left behind at the hollow ships.’

[343] με (l. 342) ... “λελάχωσι” (“λαγχάνω”), ‘make me to share in,’ ‘may give me my portion’ of fire. For Homeric burial customs see note on 16.456.

[345] γούνων, cf. l. 338.

346-348. ‘Would that anger and rage drove me—even me—to slice your flesh and eat it raw, for what you have done me, as surely as there is none that will ward the dogs from your head!’ For the construction compare 18.464-466, with notes.

[350] στήσωσ᾽ι) (“ἵστημι”), ‘weigh.’

[352] οὐδ᾽ ὣς κτλ., ‘not even at this price’ shall your mother place you on a funeral bed.

[354] πάντα, agreeing with “σε” understood.

[356] προτι-όσσομαι, ‘I gaze upon’ you.

[358] τοί τι θεῶν μήνιμα, ‘a cause of wrath against you on the part of the gods.’

θεῶν, subjective genitive. The sense is, consider lest my death shall stir the gods to wrath against you.

[363] Cf. note on 16.857.

[372] πλησίον ἄλλον, cf. B 271.

[373] μαλακώτερος ἀμφαφάεσθαι, is ‘softer to handle.’

[375] τις, ‘many a man.’

[379] ἐπεί, first in the line, in spite of the short initial syllable § 36).

[380] κακὰ πόλλ᾽ ... ὅσ᾽ οὐ, ‘more evils than.’

[381] εἰ δ᾽ ἄγετ᾽ε), cf. note on A 302.

[384] καὶ Ἕκτορος κτλ., the genitive absolute here expresses concession.

[386] ἄκλαυτος, ‘unwept,’ in the ceremonial way.

[389] The subject of καταλήθοντ᾽αι) is indefinite: “they,” i. e. ‘the dead.’ “θανόντες”.

[395] μήδετο, with two accusatives, ‘devised ... for.’

[396] ποδῶν limits τένοντε, ‘the tendons of both feet.’

[397] ἐξῆπτεν, ‘attached thereto.’

[400] μάστιξέν ῤ̔ ἐλάειν, supply “ἵππους” as subject of the infinitive, which is intransitive, ‘he whipped his steeds to a run.’

[401] τοῦ δ᾽ ... ἑλκομένοιο, with “κονίσαλος”, ‘and from him as he was being dragged a cloud of dust arose.’

[406] καλύπτρην, see Introduction, 21.

[409] κωκυτῷ ... οἰμωγῇ, datives of manner and means, ‘were overcome with wailing and lamentation’; the former is used of the women, as the scholiast says, the latter of the men.

[410] τῷ is neuter: ‘and it was quite like to this, as if’ etc. The sense is: such cries of grief were heard as would be raised if all beetling Troy were blazing in fire from the citadel down.

[414] κόπρον, ‘dirt’ or ‘dust.’ The expression “κυλινδόμενος κατὰ κόπρον” has many ancient parallels, e. g. Jeremiah vi, 26: “O daughter of my people, gird thee with sackcloth, and wallow thyself in ashes.” Micah i, 10: “In the house of Aphrah roll thyself in the dust.”

[416] σχέσθε, ‘hold off.’

[418] λίσσωμ᾽αι), § 193.

[420] τοιόσδε, ‘such as I,’ ‘as gray as I.’

[424] τῶν, genitive of cause. Compare Hector's words to Andromache, Z 450-454.

[425] “οὗ ... ἄχος”, ‘grief for whom’ (objective genitive).

[426] ὡς ὄφελεν, what sort of wish? § 203.

[427] τῷ κε κορεσσάμεθα, ‘then we should have satisfied ourselves,’ ‘have had our fill.’

[430] ἁδινοῦ κτλ., see note on 18.316.

[431] βείομαι, probably parallel with “βέομαι”. See note on 16.852.

[435] δειδέχατ᾽ο), for the form see I 224 and 671.

[438] Ἕκτορος limits “πέπυστο§ 174.1).

[441] δίπλακα πορφυρέην, cf. 3.126.

[448] So when Euryalus's mother heard of his death (Verg. Aen. IX, 476),excussi manibus radii,” ‘the shuttle fell from her hands.’

[450] ἴδωμ᾽αι), for subjunctive see § 193.

ὅτιν᾽α) = Attie “ἅτινα§ 124).

451, 452. ἐν δέ μοι κτλ., ‘and in my own breast my heart bounds up to my mouth.’

[454] αἲ γὰρ ἀπ᾽ οὔατος κτλ., cf. note on 18.272.

[457] μιν καταπαύσῃ ἀγηνορίης ἀλεγεινῆς, lest he ‘have checked him from his woful valor.’ Andromache uses “ἀλεγεινῆς” with reference to herself, meaning “τῆς ἐμοὶ λυπηρᾶς” (scholium), ‘that causes me distress,’ because it carries Hector into danger.

[459] τὸ ὃν μένος κτλ., ‘yielding in that mighty spirit of his to none.’— μένος is accusative of specification.

[468] δέσματα is a general word, to which “ἄμπυκα” (l. 469), etc., are in apposition. Apparently the poet gives here the complete head-dress of an Homeric woman.

[469] ἄμπυκα seems to indicate the same as “στεφάνη” (cf. 18.597), a metal diadem, especially of gold. Helbig, explaining differently from Studniczka, illustrates “κεκρύφαλον” and “πλεκτὴν ἀναδέσμην” from Etruscan monuments, suggesting that the former was a high, stiff cap, around which was wound the twisted band (“πλεκτὴ ἀναδέσμη”), both useful and decorative (Das homerische Epos^{2}, pp. 219-226).

[470] κρήδεμνον, see Introduction, 21.

[472] Ἠετίωνος, see Z 395.

ἕδνα, gifts of cattle, etc., originally paid by the suitor to the bride's father, to win his bride. In the course of the Homeric age—centuries long—the practice of buying the bride, which is here distinctly referred to, underwent a change, as did many other ancient Homeric customs. It is certainly true that the Homeric poetry continued into a time when the old custom was abandoned and that of historic Greece the rule; that is, into a period when, so far from having to purchase his bride, the suitor received a dowry along with her at the time of marriage. To the older period belongs the adjective “ἀλφεσίβοιαι” (18.593). But to the new custom there are distinct references in X 51,

πολλὰ γὰρ ὤπασε παιδὶ γέρων ὀνομάκλυτος Ἄλτης”,

and I 147 f., “ἐγὼ δ᾽ ἔπι μείλια δώσω πολλὰ μάλ̓, ὅσς᾿ οὔ πώ τις ἑῇ ἐπέδωκε θυγατρί”.

(Cf. Cauer, Homerkritik, pp. 187-195.)

[474] ἀτυζομένην ἀπολέσθαι § 212) ‘dazed unto death,’ i. e. so that she was like one dead.

[477] ἰῇ ... αἴσῃ, ‘for one and the same portion,’ or ‘doom.’

[484] νήπιος αὔτως, cf. Z 400.

[487] φύγῃ, ‘survives’; subject, the child Astyanax.

[488] τοι, remote dative of the person interested, ‘you know he will always have toil and distress hereafter.’

[489] ἀπουρήσουσιν, § 63.3.

[491] πάντα, ‘completely,’ adverbial.

[493] ‘Pulling one by the cloak, and another by the tunic.’

494, 495. ‘And among them, when they are touched with pity, one puts a cup to his [i. e. the boy's] lips for a little time, and moistens his lips, to be sure, but does not moisten his palate.’ For meaning of “ἐπέσχεν” cf. l. 83 of this book and I 489; for the tense see § 184.

[498] οὕτως, for meaning cf. 18.392, “ὧδε”.

[500] With this line the description of the orphaned boy returns to Astyanax. From l. 487 to l. 499 the description has been of a general character, and is certainly inapplicable to any probable situation of Priam's grandson Astyanax, even if he should lose his father. Aristarchus was for removing these lines altogether.

[505] ἂν ... πάθῃσι, ‘he shall suffer,’ § 192.

506, 507. See note on Z 402, 403.

[513] ὄφελος, for construction cf. “πῆμα, Γ” 50.

[514] εἶναι, ‘that they may be.’

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