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Book 3 (Γ

[2] κλαγγῇ τ᾽ ἐνοπῇ τ᾽ε), syntax, § 178.

ὄρνιθες ὥς, scanned --- -; for the quantity of -θες see § 37.

[3] περ = “καί”, ‘also,’ and belongs with “γεράνων”. Cf. A 131.

πέλει οὐρανόθι πρό, ‘rises in heaven, to the fore,’ ‘rises before heaven.’

Vergil (Aen. X, 264-266) condenses the simile thus: “quales sub nubibus atris
Strymoniae dant signa grues, atque aethera tranant
cum sonitu, fugiuntque notos clamore secundo.

‘As beneath the stormy clouds Strymonian cranes proclaim their approach, sweeping noisily through the air and fleeing before the winds “with clamor in their train.”’

[4] χειμῶνα, ‘winter.’

[5] ἐπ᾽ί) with genitive = ‘toward’ here.

[6] The existence of pygmies was known to Herodotus also, who had heard of some little men living in a remote (and rather indefinite) country reached by journeying south and west from Libya (Herod. II, 32). Accounts of African pygmies are familiar enough from the reports of numerous travelers of our own day. So, while Homer's battles between pygmies and cranes belong to the realm of fairyland, it is not to be doubted that he had a basis of fact for his mention of the diminutive men.

[7] ἔριδα, form, § 80.

[10] κατέχευεν, on translating the tense, § 184.

[11] κλέπτῃ δέ τε νυκτὸς ἀμείνω (accusative singular agreeing with “ὀμίχλην”, l. 10), ‘but better for a thief than night.’

[12] The order for translation is: “ἐπὶ τόσσον, ἐπὶ ὅσον”, (a man can see) ‘only so far as’ etc.

[14] πεδίοιο, syntax § 171.

[15] ἐπ᾽ ἀλλήλοισιν ἰόντες = Attic “ἐπ᾽ ἀλλήλους ἰόντες”.

[17] Tennyson says of Paris in Oenone: “A leopard skin
Droop'd from his shoulder, but his sunny hair
Cluster'd about his temples like a god's.

[19] προκαλίζετο, ‘challenged’ by his attitude, not by speech.

[22] μακρὰ (cognate accusative) βιβάντα, ‘with long strides.’

[23] ὥς τε λέων ἐχάρη, ‘as a lion rejoices,’ § 184.

[24] κεραόν, on quantity of the ultima, § 32.

[25] εἴ περ ἂν αὐτὸν

σεύωνται, § 197.1. The apodosis (“κατεσθίει”) of this general condition is accompanied by “τε”, which while untranslatable often marks a general statement.

[29] ἐξ ὀχέων, ‘from his chariot.’ Homer may use a plural form with reference to the different parts of which an object is composed. Cf. A 14, 45.

The use of chariots in Homer is limited to a comparatively few conspicuous warriors; the great majority of the fighting men go afoot. Sec Introduction. 27.

[31] φίλον ἦτορ, ‘in his heart,’ accusative of specification.

[33] ἀπέστη, gnomic aorist like “ἐχάρη” (l. 23); so too “ἔλλαβε” (l. 34), “ἀνεχώρησεν” (l. 35), “εἷλε” (l. 35).—The simile is imitated by Vergil

Improvisum aspris veluti qui sentibus anguem
pressit humi nitens, trepidusque repente refugit
attollentem iras et caerula colla tumentem:
haud secus Androgeus visu tremefactus abibat.

‘Like a man treading among prickly briers, who unwittingly sets foot upon a snake, and quivering recoils from it with a start as it rears its angry crest and swells its dark-hued neck: even so did Androgeus trembling at the sight start to retreat.’

[34] ὕπο, ‘beneath,’ adverb.

ἔλλαβε, spelling, § 39.

[35] παρειάς, with μιν, syntax, § 180.

[39] Δύσπαρι, ‘evil Paris,’ in striking contrast with the following “εἶδος ἄριστε”. A similar antithesis is noticed in Tennyson's Oenone: “Beautiful Paris, evil-hearted Paris.”

[40] αἴθ᾽ ὄφελες κτλ., construction, § 203.

τε ... τε, here equivalent to ‘or’; cf. B 303, 346.

[42] ἔμεναι § 137.6), as subject supply “σε.

ὑπόψιον may be translated as a substantive, ‘object of others' [“ἄλλων”] suspicion.’

[44] φάντες, ‘thinking.’—As subject of ἔμμεναι supply “σε”.

ἀριστῆα πρόμον = “ἄριστον πρόμαχον”. For Paris as “πρόμαχος” cf. l. 16. [Some editors make “ἀριστῆα”, subject of “ἔμμεναι”, and “πρόμον” a predicate noun after it.]

οὔνεκα καλὸν εἶδος ἔπ᾽ (ι), ‘because you have a fair form.’

[45] ἔπ᾽ (ι), accent, §167.

The words ἀλλ᾽ οὐκ κτλ. may be Hector's own, not the reported gibes of the Achaeans; but if a comma be read for the colon (after ἔπ᾽), they may be regarded as a continuation of the Achaeans' thought.

βίη is might for offense; ἀλκή, strength for defense.

[46] τοιόσδε ἐών, ‘really, being such a one,’ did you do so and so? ‘Is this the man that sailed the deep’ etc., is the English idiom.

[47] ἐπιπλώσας and μιχθείς (l. 48) are best translated as finite verbs parallel with “ἀνῆγες” (l. 48), although of course denoting prior action.

[49] νυόν, ‘allied by marriage,’ here.

[50] πῆμα, χάρμα (l. 51), and κατηφείην (l. 51) are accusatives in apposition to the whole preceding sentence (cf. GG. 539): ‘(to be) a great distress’ etc.

[52] οὐκ ἂν δὴ μείνειας § 206) “κτλ.”, ‘you had better not wait for martial Menelaus,’ ironical advice. For construction cf. B 250. Most editors put an interrogation point at the end of the line, making a taunting question.

[53] The protasis, ‘if you should wait,’ is understood. ‘Then you would know what sort of man he is whose blooming wife you have.’

[54] οὐκ ἂν ... χραίσμῃ, construction, § 192.

Ἀφροδίτης has initial syllable short, § 4.

[55] τε κόμη τό τε εἶδος, in apposition to “δῶρα.

ὅτ᾽ ἐν κονίῃσι μιγείης, ‘vhen haply you roll in the dust,’ less vivid future protasis. The use of the plural “κονίῃσι” suggests the particles that compose the whole; cf. “ὀχέων”, l. 29.

[56] 56, 57. τέ κεν ἤδη κτλ., the protasis—here wanting—may be supplied by ‘else’: ‘else surely you had already worn a chiton of stone.’ This is generally understood to mean ‘you would have been stoned to death’; but it may be that the allusion is to a mound of stones heaped up as a covering over the dead. Cf. II Samuel xviii, 17:

And they took Absalom, and cast him into a great pit in the wood, and laid a very great heap of stones upon him.

The Homeric line may easily carry both meanings; the same pile of stones that caused the death might serve as the dead man's barrow also (Studniczka).

[57] ἕσσο, ἕννυμι.

[59] κατ᾽ αἶσαν, ‘in just measure,’ ‘after my deserts.’

ὑπὲρ αἶσαν, ‘unduly.’

[60] Paris means, ‘with your words you have cut me to the quick.’

[61] εἶσιν, ‘goes,’ ‘is driven.’

δουρός, ‘a timber.’

τέχνῃ, ‘with art,’ ‘skilfully.’

[62] As subject of ὀφέλλει understand ‘the axe’; it increases the effect of the man's blow by its sharpness.

ἐρωήν, cf. note on B 179.

[68] Τρῶας καὶ πάντας Ἀχαιούς, in apposition to “ἄλλους”, ‘the others, the Trojans’ etc.

[70] ἀμφ᾽ί) with dative, like Attic “περί” with genitive.

[72] ἑλὼν ... οἴκαδ᾽ ἀγέσθω, ‘let him take and carry home with him.’

εὖ strengthens πάντα, ‘each and every one.’ The treasures referred to were brought away from the palace of Menelaus when Helen eloped with Paris.

[73] οἱ δ᾽ ἄλλοι, in apposition to ‘you,’ the subject of “ναίοιτε” (l. 74), and “τοί”, the subject of “νεέσθων” (l. 74): ‘as for the rest, you’ etc.

φιλότητα, in same construction as “ὅρκια.

ταμόντες, cf. B 124.

[74] ναίοιτε, syntax, § 204.

τοὶ δέ, the Greeks.

[75] Ἄργος ἐς ἱππόβοτον κτλ., in this formula there is probably a trace of the original meaning of Argos, the district in Thessaly. Cf. note on A 79.

[80] ἔβαλλον, irregular, but quite Homeric, for “βάλλοντες”, which would be expected in a construction parallel with “τιτυσκόμενοι”.

[87] μῦθον, ‘challenge’; cf. note on A 388.

[88] κέλεται, ‘he proposes.’

Τρῶας and “Ἀχαιους” are in apposition to “ἄλλους”.

[90] αὐτόν, ‘himself.’

[91] οἴους, ‘alone,’ in agreement with “αὐτόν” and “Μενέλαον” (l. 90).

[95] ἀκὴν ἐγένοντο, ‘were hushed’; ἀκήν, an adverb, was originally an accusative case. No wonder they were silent, as a scholiast suggests: Paris, the adulterer, now coolly proposes a duel with the injured husband; already having taken the wife, he asks for the opportunity of taking the husband's life also.

[98] φρονέω κτλ., ‘my mind is [Monro, Homeric Grammar^{2}, § 238] that Argives and Trojans should now be parted.’

[99] πέποσθε = “πεπόνθατε”. Another reading, “πέπασθε”, is often preferred. The forms arise from “πεποθ-τε” or “πεπαθ-τε; θ” becomes sigma before another lingual mute and “τ” is aspirated.

[100] Ἀλεξάνδρου κτλ., ‘on account of the beginning that Alexander made.’

[101] τέτυκται, ‘is prepared.’

[102] τεθναίη, διακρινθεῖτε, syntax, § 204.

[103] οἴσετε, form, § 153.

ἄρν᾽ε), dual. The ‘white ram’ is an offering to the sun; the ‘black ewe,’ to the earth, black being the appropriate color of victims offered to the chthonian deities.

[104] The Greeks, being strangers (“ξεῖνοι”) in the land, propose to sacrifice to Zeus— “Ζεὺς δ᾽ ἐπιτιμήτωρ ἱκετάων τε ξείνων τε, ξείνιος, ὃς ξείνοισιν ἅμ̓ αἰδοίοισιν ὀπηδεῖ”. ‘For Zeus is the protector of suppliants and strangers, the strangers' god, who attends on strangers to whom respect is due’ (Od. 9.270, 271).

[105] ἄξετε, tense, § 153.

Πριάμοιο βίην, ‘the might of Priam’= ‘mighty Priam.’—The expression ὅρκια τάμνῃ

αὐτός evidently does not mean that Priam ‘by his own hand’ may perform the sacrifice, for Agamemnon does this (l. 273).

[106] παῖδες ... ἄπιστοι, Paris is particularly meant by this general charge.

[108] 108-110. General truths.

[109] οἷς may be masculine or neuter: ‘among what men’ or ‘in what affairs an old man has a part.’ On see § 119.

μετ-έῃσι, § 136.6; on omission of “ἄν” or “κε” in the present general protasis, § 197.

πρόσσω καὶ ὀπίσσω, for meaning cf. A 343.

[110] ὅπως ... γένηται, syntax, § 199.

[113] ἵππους, horses harnessed to chariots.

ἐπὶ στίχας, ‘in rows,’ like 18.602.

ἐκ ... ἔβαν, from the chariots; there was no cavalry in Homeric warfare. See Introduction. 27.

[115] ἀμφίς, ‘between,’ separating Achaeans and Trojans.

[119] ἄρν᾽ = “ἄρνα”.

[120] οἰσέμεναι, tense, § 153.

[123] τήν, relative.

εἶχε, as his wife.

[124] Λαοδίκην, appositive to “τήν” (l. 123).

[126] δίπλακα, ‘double mantle,’ substantive (or adjective with “χλαῖνας” understood) in apposition to “ἱστόν” (l. 125), ‘web.’ See Introduction, 12,

ἐνέπασσεν, ‘was weaving therein.’

[129] ὠκέα, spelling, § 29. 130. νύμφα φίλη, ‘dear child.’

[132] οἵ, relative; the antecedent is “οἵ” (l. 134), ‘those.’

[134] ἕαται, form. § § 29; 142, 4, b. The meaning is ‘rest’ rather than ‘sit,’ for they are standing, as is shown by the next line.

[138] τῷ νικήσαντι (syntax, § 176), to be translated as if “τοῦ νικὴσαντος.

κε marks the participle as conditional; the only other instance, in Homer, of this use of “κε” is in l. 255; it is very likely suggested by the form of l. 71, “ὁππότερος δέ κε νικήσῃ”, where “κε” is of course regular with the subjunctive.

κεκλήσῃ, ‘you shall be called,’ is nearly equivalent to ‘you shall be.’

[140] ἀνδρός, mentioned in ll. 52, 53.

ἄστεος, Sparta.

τοκήων, Leda and her husband Tyndareus; but Helen's father was Zeus (l. 199).

[141] ὀθόνῃσιν, here used as a veil. Cf. note on 18.595.

[146] οἳ δ᾽ ἀμφὶ Πρίαμον κτλ. The names are to be translated as nominatives; cf. Xen. Anab. III, 5, 1:οἱ δ᾽ ἀμφὶ Τισσαφέρνην καὶ Ἀριαῖον ἀποτραυόμενοι ἄλλην ὁδὸν ᾤχοντο, οἱ δ᾽ ἀμφὶ Χειρίσοφον καταβάντες ἐστρατοπεδεύοντο κτλ.” ‘Tissaphernes and Ariaeus and those that were with them’ ... ‘Chirisophus and his followers.’

[148] Οὐκαλέγων τε καὶ Ἀντήνωρ, a free use of nominatives where accusatives, in the same construction as “Πρίαμον”, etc., might be expected.

[149] ἐπὶ Σκαιῇσι πύλῃσιν, cf. note on Z 373.

[152] δενδρέῳ, scansion, § 43; like “χρυσέῳ”, A 15. The note of the cicada is described as “λιγυρήν”, ‘shrill,’ ‘clear,’ in the familiar Anacreontic (32, l. 14), and perhaps the difficult λειριόεσσαν is intended to convey a similar meaning here; it is commonly translated ‘delicate.’

ἱεῖσιν, Attic “ἱᾶσιν” (“ἵημι”), ‘send forth’: from “ἱέ-νσιν§ 133). In connection with this curious association of the aged councilors with cicadas, the story of Tithonus (note on B 447) may be recalled; but of course the poet here limits the likeness to the voice alone.

[156] οὐ νέμεσις = “οὐ νεμεσητόν”, ‘it is no cause for blame.’

[157] πάσχειν with πολὺν χρόνον has the force of a perfect in English. Cf. note on A 553.

[160] πῆμα, in apposition to ‘she,’ i. e. Helen, the subject of “λίποιτο”. The verb is used in passive sense § 185).

[162] πάροιθ᾽ (ε), with ἐμεῖο, ‘beside me.’

ἵζευ, § 42.

[163] πηούς, connections by marriage.

[164] μοι, ‘in my sight,’ a true dative § 176).

[166] ὡς = “ἵνα”, ‘in order that.’

[167] ὅς τις ὅδ᾽ ἐστὶν Ἀχαιὸς ἀνήρ, ‘who this Achaean man is,’ repeats in the form of an indirect question the object of “ἐξονομήνῃς” (l. 166), “τόνδ᾽ ἄνδρα πελώριον”.

[168] κεφαλῇ, ‘in stature,’ dative of respect, a subdivision of the instrumental use § 178); cf. “κεφαλῇ” (l. 193), “ὤμοισιν” (l. 194), and also the accusatives of specification, a closely related construction, “κεφαλήν” and “ὤμους”, l. 227.

ἔασιν, cf. B 125.

[172] Helen's dutiful reply to Priam's kindly address of l. 162: ‘rev erend in my sight are you, dear father, and awful.’

ἑκυρέ, ‘father-inlaw,’ once began with “σϝ”, the force of which consonants still survives in this line.

For δϝεινός see § 62.

[173] ὡς ὄφελεν ... ἁδεῖν § 203), ‘oh that death had been my choice —evil death!’—ἁδεῖν, ἁνδάνω.

[174] υἱέι, § 107, § 178.

γνωτούς, with special reference to her brothers, Castor and Polydeuces (l. 237).

[175] παῖδα, cf. Od. 4.12-14:

Ἑλένῃ δὲ θεοὶ γόνον οὐκέτ᾽ ἔφαινον, ἐπεὶ δὴ τὸ πρῶτον ἐγείνατο παῖδ᾽ ἐρατεινήν, Ἑρμιόνην, εἶδος ἔχε χρυσέης Ἀφροδίτης”.

‘To Helen the gods never again gave offspring, when once she had borne a lovely daughter, Hermione, who had the looks of golden Aphrodite.’— ὁμηλικίην, ‘companionship,’ i. e. ‘companions.’

[176] τά γ᾽ οὐκ ἐγένοντο, ‘this came not.’

τό, ‘therefore.’

[179] ἀμφότερον, ‘both,’ an appositive to the following nouns, “βασιλεύς ... αἰχμητής.

τε after “βασιλεύς” is pleonastic. On the whole line cf. Xen. Memorabilia, III, 2, where Socrates is represented discussing the meaning of the words, in close connection with the other phrase commonly applied to Agamemnon, “ποιμένα λαῶν” (e. g. B 243):

‘Why does Homer praise Agamemnon in these words— “ἀμφότερον, βασιλεύς τ᾽ ἀγαθὸς κρατερός τ᾽ αἰχμητής”?

Is it not because he would be a mighty warrior not if he alone should struggle nobly against the enemy, but if he should lead all his army to fight bravely; and a good king, not if he should direct his own life only with success, but if he should lead his subjects also to prosperity?’

[180] κυνώπιδος agrees with “ἐμοῦ”, implied in “ἐμός”. Cf. Z 490.

εἴ ποτε ἔην γε, ‘if such he ever was’; an expression of painful doubt whether the past was really true.

[183] ‘In very truth, many were the sons of the Achaeans under your command, it now appears [“ῥα”],’ is a literal rendering; but the English idiom requires, ‘many are the sons of the Achaeans under your command, I now see.’ The Greek and the English take different points of view: the Greek suggests, ‘I was formerly somewhat mistaken in my view; it now appears [“ἄρα”] that all the time certain facts were true’ (and still continue so); the English lays emphasis on the present situation only, implying what the Greek states, just as the Greek implies what the English states. Compare similar examples, I 316, II 33, 60, etc.

δεδμήατο, § 142, § 4, a: 188.

[188] ἐλέχθην, ‘was numbered’ (root “λεγ”), or possibly ‘was posted’ (root “λεχ”, cf. “λεξάσθων”, I 67).

[189] Ἀμαζόνες: the tradition, recorded in the scholium, is that the Amazons, who lived by the Thermodon, overran Phrygia the Great, on a marauding expedition, in the time of the Phrygian leaders, Mygdon and Otreus. Priam went to the aid of the Phrygians, whose vast force greatly impressed him. It will be observed that the later story that the Amazons with their queen Penthesilea came to aid Priam against the Greeks scarcely tallies with this Homeric allusion in which Priam appears as the Amazons' enemy. In this myth of the Amazons' invasion of Asia Minor some scholars see a record of the incursions of northern tribes with their warlike women. Various peoples of the north had customs which agree remarkably with those ascribed to the Amazons; and it is not impossible that an extravagant version of their migrations survived in the Amazon myth. Another theory about the matter is set forth by A. H. Sayce in The Hittites, pp. 78-80, where it is maintained that the story of the Amazons has its origin in “the armed priestesses of the Hittite goddess.”

[193] μείων μέν, supply “ἐστί”.

[194] ὤμοισιν, στέρνοισιν, cf. l. 168 and note.

ἰδέ = “καί.

ἰδέσθαι limits “εὐρύτερος”, ‘broader to look upon.’

[196] κτίλος has short ultima in spite of the following “ὥς”.

[201] Ἰθάκης κραναῆς, cf.

ἐν δ᾽ Ἰθάκῃ οὔτ᾽ ἂρ δρόμοι εὺρέες οὔτε τι λειμών:
αἰγίβοτος, καὶ μᾶλλον ἐπήρατος ἱπποβότοιο.
οὐ γάρ τις νήσων ἱππήλατος οὐδ᾽ ἐυλείμων,
αἵ θ᾽ ἁλὶ κεκλίαται. Ἰθάκη δέ τε καὶ περὶ πασέων.

‘In Ithaca there are neither broad runs nor any meadowland at all; it is grazed by goats and more lovely than a land where horses are pastured. For none of the isles that lie upon the sea is suited to horse driving or even rich in meadows; and of Ithaca this is true above all.’

[203] τὴν δ᾽ ... ἀντίον ηὔδα = “τὴν δὲ ... προσηύδα”.

[205] ἤδη γὰρ ... ποτ᾽ε), cf. A 260. Menelaus and Odysseus came to Troy on an embassy before hostilities actually began; the incident is referred to elsewhere also (11.138-141). Their purpose was to demand Helen. At that time Antenor, son of Hicetaon, entertained them and frustrated a treacherous plot against their lives. After the capture of Troy, as the scholiast continues, Agamemnon gave orders to spare the home of Antenor, marking it by a suspended leopard skin.

[206] ἀγγελίης, genitive of “ἀγγελίη”, with “ἕνεκ̓”(“α”), ‘on a message about you.’

σεῦ is objective genitive with “ἀγγελίης”. For the order cf. l. 100: Ἀλεξάνδρου ἕνεκ᾽ ἀρχῆς. [Some understand “ἀγγελίης” as nominative=“ἄγγελος”, and take “σεῦ” with “ἕνεκ̓”(“α”).]

[210] στάντων, partitive genitive.

ὑπείρεχεν, cf. B 426.

ὤμους, accusative of specification.

[211] ἄμφω δ᾽ ἑζομένω, in apposition to the following nominatives, of which the first only, “Ὀδυσσεύς”, is expressed; the second, “Μενέλαος”, is implied. It is as if the poet had continued, “Μενέλαος δ᾽ ἧττον γεραρός”.

[215] , ‘although,’ ‘yet.’

γένει, in sense of “γενεῇ”, ‘in birth,’ ‘in years.’

[217] ὑπαὶ ... ἴδεσκε § 154.1), ‘kept looking down.’

κατὰ χθονός, ‘down on the ground,’ with “ὄμματα πήξας”. In this construction the genitive probably illustrates the local use (cf. § 171, § 173).

[218] σκῆπτρον, why did he hold a scepter? Cf. A 234.

[220] φαίης κεν § 207), ‘you [indefinite subject] would have thought.’

ζάκοτον ... τιν᾽α), ‘a very surly fellow,’ because he kept his eyes on the ground; ἄφρονα ... αὔτως, ‘a mere [or ‘perfect’] dolt,’ because he seemed not to know enough to gesticulate with the staff.

[223] ἐρίσσειε, force in English, § 207; cf. “φαίης κεν” above (l. 220).

[224] ‘Then we were not so much amazed at seeing Odysseus's looks’ as we were at his words (scholium). His oratory was an agreeable surprise.

[230] θεὸς ὤς, on the scansion, § 37.

[235] κεν ... γνοίην, potential optative; in this instance the present indicative would better conform to the English idiom.

τ᾽ is for “τοι”, § 40.4; or possibly “τε” (cf. A 521).

[236] ἰδέειν, form, § 137.4.

[238] τώ μοι κτλ., ‘whom the same mother bore that bore me.’

μοι μία, ‘one with me,’ is short for ‘the same as my mother.’ “μία” here = “ αὐτή”, and the dative is either a true dative or possibly “sociative.”

[239] The idea is, either they did not come at all, or although they came, they do not wish to take part in the battle.

243, 244. The poet of these lines does not recognize the story, if he knew it, of the alternate immortality of the Dioscuri. It is mentioned, however, in the Odyssey (Od. 11.302-304). The lyric poet Pindar relates (Nemean X, 49-90) the story of the slaying of Castor, who was mortal; and he tells how immortal Polydeuces, with the consent of Zeus, shared his immortality with his brother: “μεταμειβόμενοι δ᾽ ἐναλλὰξ ἁμέραν τὰν μὲν παρὰ πατρὶ φίλῳ
Δὶ νέμονται, τὰν δ᾽ ὑπὸ κεύθεσι γαίας ἐν γυάλοις Θεράπνας,
πότμον ἀμπιπλάντες ὁμοῖον

‘And shifting their abode by turns, they spend one day in company with their father Zeus, and the next they pass under the hidden places of the earth, in the recesses of Therapne, fulfilling a like destiny.’—Nemean X, 55-57.

[245] θεῶν: with “ὅρκις πιστά” as in l. 269.

ὅρκια, offerings for cementing oaths, namely “ἄρνε δύω καὶ οἶνον” (l. 246).

[250] ὄρσεο, form, § 153.

[252] τάμητε, note the change to plural subject, ‘you all.’

[254] ἀμφὶ γυναικί, Attic “περὶ γυναικός”. Cf. “περὶ σεῖο”, l. 137.

[255] τῷ δέ κε νικήσαντι, cf. l. 138.

ἕποιτο, syntax, § 204.

[256] 256-258. Cf. ll. 73-75.

[257] ναίοιμεν, syntax, § 204.

νέονται, with future meaning.

[261] ἂν ... ἔβη, ‘mounted’ the chariot.

[262] δίφρον, accusative of limit of motion.

[263] Σκαιῶν, for “Σκαιάων”. Supply “πυλάων” (“πυλῶν”).

ἔχον, ‘guided.’

[265] ἐξ ἵππων, ‘from their chariots’; cf. notes on ll. 29, 113.

[268] ἄν, supply “ὤρνυτο”.

[269] ὅρκια, cf. l. 245.

[270] μίσγον, ‘mingled’ the wine of the Greeks with that of the Trojans. Wine unmixed with water (B 341, “σπονδαὶ ἄκρητοι”) was used in such ceremonies.

[272] The knife (“μάχαιραν”, l. 271), ‘which always hung by the great scabbard of his sword.’

ἄωρτο (for which “ἄορτο” has been proposed as the proper spelling) is pluperfect of “ἀείρω”, and means, literally, ‘was suspended.’

[273] τάμνε τρίχας, as a sign that the victim was consecrated for sacrifice.

[274] ἀρίστοις, with “Τρώων καὶ Ἀχαιῶν”.

[277] Ἠέλιος, case, § 169.

[278] οἵ, ‘ye that,’ includes Hades and Persephone and in particular the Erinyes. Cf. T 258-260:

ἴστω νῦν Ζεὺς πρῶτα, θεῶν ὕπατος καὶ ἄριστος, Γῆ τε καὶ Ἠέλιος καὶ ἐρινύες, αἵ θ᾽ ὑπὸ γαῖαν ἀνθρώπους τίνυνται, ὅτις κ̓ ἐπίορκον ὀμόσσῃ”.

[285] Τρῶας ... ἀποδοῦναι (syntax, § 213)=Attic “Τρῶες ἀποδόντων” or “ἀποδότωσαν”.

[286] τιμήν, ‘recompense,’ ‘fine.’

ἀποτινέμεν, in same construction as “ἀποδοῦναι.

ἥντιν᾽ ἔοικεν, ‘whatever 'tis seemly’ (to pay).

[287] ... πέληται expresses purpose; ‘so that it shall be in remembrance [literally ‘be in motion’] among men to come also.’

[289] οὐκ instead of “μή” is found in this protasis because the negative modifies “ἐθέλωσιν” alone, with which it forms one idea, ‘refuse’; the construction is Attic also. If the negative were unattached, and modified the whole clause, it would be “μή”.

[290] αὐτὰρ ἐγώ, ‘I for my part.’

[291] ἧος, cf. A 193.

[292] ἀπὸ ... τάμε, tmesis.

[294] ἀπὸ ... εἵλετο, tmesis.

[295] δεπάεσσιν modifies ἀφυσσόμενοι, not “ἔκχεον” (l. 296)

[296] ἔκχεον, supply “χαμάδις” (l. 300).

[299] ‘Whichever party may be first to commit wrong contrary to the oaths’—protasis of what sort of condition? GG. 651 (1).

[300] σφ᾽ι), ‘their,’ § 176.

ῥέοι, syntax, § 201.

[301] αὐτῶν agrees with a genitive implied in “σφ̓”(“ι”) (l. 300). Preserve the Greek order in translation: ‘their own and their children's.’

ἄλλοισι δαμεῖεν, ‘become subject to others.’

ἄλλοισι, for prose “ὑπ᾽ ἄλλων”, is properly a dative of interest § 176), but commonly called dative of agent.

[306] ἐν = ‘before.’

[310] Why did Priam take away with him the two lambs that he had contributed to the sacrifice? A scholium says, ‘to bury them; for it was usual for citizens of the land to bury their oath-victims, and for strangers to cast theirs into the sea.’ (Cf. T 267 f.)

[315] χῶρον ... διεμέτρεον, cf. l. 344, which means, ‘and they [the combatants] stood near each other in the measured space.’ It is suggested in the scholia that certain bounds were determined for the contestants, retreat beyond which was an acknowledgment of defeat. These limits may well have served also to keep the spectators from crowding in. How far the contestants were separated at the beginning of the struggle, the reader is not told.

[316] ‘They shook the lots,’ says the poet; then after repeating the people's prayer, which is made while the shaking takes place, he recurs to the thought more definitely (l. 324) and adds, ‘Hector shook’ the lots.

[317] ἀφείη, construction, § 209.

[322] ‘Grant that he die and enter the house of Hades.’

[323] δός is to be understood before “φιλότητα ... γενέσθαι”. If this line stood by itself, apart from the preceding verse, it could be brought under § 213, as equivalent to “φιλότης ... γενέσθω”.

[324] 324, 325. The man whose lot jumped out of the helmet first was chosen —in this instance—to hurl the spear first. As it was an advantage under the present circumstances to have this first chance, Hector looked away, in shaking the helmet, to avoid any charge of unfair play.

[326] κατὰ στίχας, ‘in rows.’

[327] ἔκειτο (in meaning, passive of “τίθημι”), ‘were placed,’ conforms to its neuter plural subject “τεύχεα”. Its connection with the former subject, “ἵπποι”, is so loose that in translating “ἵπποι” another predicate, “ἕστασαν”, had better be supplied.

[328] Paris came light-armed, to fight as a bowman (cf. ll. 17 f.). Now in preparing for the duel, he arms as for a hand-to-hand contest.

[333] He puts on his brother's breastplate, for apparently he had not brought his own, as the duel was unexpected. He had one at home, however (Z 322).

ἥρμοσε, if intransitive (cf. P 210, T 385), has “θώρηξ” under stood as subject; if transitive (cf. Od. 5.162, 247), has ‘he’ (Paris) as subject and “θώρηκα” understood as object.

[334] His sword and shield were suspended by straps passing over his shoulders, the sword strap probably over the right shoulder, the shield strap probably over the left. Cf. A 190.

[338] οἱ παλάμηφιν ἀρήρει, ‘which fitted his hand.’

[340] ἑκάτερθεν ὁμίλου = “ἐξ ἑκατέρου ὁμίλου”. The Greek point of view is characteristically ‘from’ the object; we say, ‘in either throng,’ ‘each in his own army.’

[342] δεινὸν δερκόμενοι, ‘glaring dreadfully.’

[346] πρόσθε, ‘first,’ like “πρόσθεν”, l. 317.

[348] ἔρρηξεν, the understood object is “ἀσπίδα.

οἱ αἰχμή, ‘its point’; οἱ (dative of interest, § 176) refers to “χαλκός”, ‘the bronze’ head of the spear.

[349] ὤρνυτο, ‘poised himself.’

[351] ἄνα, vocative of “ἄναξ.—δὸς τίσασθαι κτλ.”, ‘give me vengeance on him who’ etc.

[353] τις ... καὶ ὀψιγόνων ἀνθρώπων, ‘many a one of men to come also.’

ἐρρίγῃσι, form, § 136.6.

[354] φιλότητα παράσχῃ (“παρ-έχω”), ‘proffers hospitality.’

[357] διά, scansion, § 36.

[362] ἀνασχόμενος, ‘raising his arm’ to deal the blow.

αὐτῷ, i. e. the “φάλος”, on which see Introduction, 33.

[363] τε καί, for translation cf. B 303, 346, 3.40.

[366] κακότητος, genitive of cause, a common Attic construction; cf. Xen. Anab. VII, 4, 23, “τιμωρήσασθαι αὐτοὺς τῆς ἐπιθέσεως”, ‘to punish them for the attack.’

[367] ἄγη, ἄγνυμι.

[368] παλάμηφιν, here ablatival genitive, § 155, § 1; 175.

[369] κόρυθος, syntax, § 172.

[372] ὀχεύς, appositive to “ὅς.—τέτατο, τείνω”.

[374] ὀξύ, cognate accusative with “νόησε”, ‘had directed a quick glance.’

[375] ἱμάντα βοός (genitive of material) “κτλ.”, ‘strap made from the skir of an ox slain with might.’ This means a strong strap; for, as the scholiast explains, the leather made from diseased animals, that die natural deaths, is inferior.

κταμένοιο, aorist middle with passive meaning, § 185.

[376] κεινή (note the accent) = Attic “κενή.

τρυφάλεια, see Introduction, 33.

[380] ἔγχεϊ χαλκείῳ: the warrior regularly carried two spears; Menelaus's first spear only has been thrown (ll. 18, 367, 368).

[381] ὥς τε, § 123.6.

θεός, feminine, as A 516, etc.

[383] καλέουσ᾽α), tense, § 151.

ἴε = Attic “ᾔει” (“εἶμι”).

[385] ἑανοῦ, ‘robe’ § 172).

ἐτίναξε, ‘shook’ her; supply “μιν”.

[386] μιν, object of “προσέειπεν”.

[387] οἱ § 176), i. e. Helen, has ναιεταούσῃ in agreement.

[388] ἤσκειν has “ν” movable, although the imperfect of a contract verb.

μιν refers to the wool spinner; the subject of φιλέεσκεν is Helen.

[392] φαίης, with indefinite subject.

[399] δαιμονίη, ‘wonderful goddess!’

[400] πῃ ... πολίων, § 173.

[401] Φρυγίης and Μῃονίης limit “πολίων” (l. 400).

[407] ὑποστρέψειας, § 201, § 204.

Ὄλυμπον, accusative of limit of motion.

[409] εἰς κε = Attic “ἕως ἄν.

ποιήσεται, § 144, II.

[412] If I do go, Helen reasons, the Trojan women will reproach me for being the cause of renewed hostilities. According to the terms of the compact, I ought now to go to the victor, not to the vanquished Paris.— ἔχω, ‘I already have.’

[414] σχετλίη, the first syllable is short, § 4.

[416] μητίσομαι § 144, II), in construction corresponding with “μεθείω” (l. 414) and “ἀπεχθήρω” (l. 415).

[417] σὺ δέ κεν ... ὄληαι, future statement in an independent sentence, § 192.

οἶτον, cognate accusative.

[419] κατασχομένη κτλ., similar in meaning to l. 141, “ἀργεννῇσι καλυψαμένη ὀθόνῃσιν”.

[425] θεά, appositive to “Ἀφροδίτη” (l. 424).

[427] πάλιν κλίνασα, ‘averting.’

ἠνίπαπε occurred B 245.

[428] ὡς ὤφελες ... ὀλέσθαι § 203), ‘ah! you ought to have perished there!’

[429] ἀνδρί, so-called dative of agent with passive “δαμείς” (cf. “ἄλλοισι”, l. 301); this construction is limited to what tenses in Attic Greek? GG. 524 b.

[430] Μενελάου, genitive of comparison with “φέρτερος” (l. 431).

[432] προκάλεσσαι, where found? GG. 284. Where might a different form. “προκαλέσσαι” (note accent), be found? GG. 285. The advice in this line and the next is ironical.

[433] ἀλλά σ᾽ ἐγώ γε ... κέλομαι, ‘no, I for my part urge you.’

[436] δαμήῃς, § 149 (a).

[438] με ... θυμόν, § 180.

[439] Paris is not candid enough to add that he himself escaped death by the timely intervention of Aphrodite only.

[440] ἐγώ, supply “νικήσω.

πάρα, adverbial, as l. 135, A 611, B 279.

[441] τραπείομεν (“τέρπω”), second aorist passive subjunctive, § 149 (a).

[442] ἀμφεκάλυψεν, ‘encompassed,’ or ‘enmeshed’ like a net (scholium). Many modern commentators prefer ‘enwrapt’ like a cloud.

[443] σε, object of “ἁρπάξας” (l. 444).

[448] τρητοῖσι, ‘perforated’ with holes, applied to bedsteads. There are various explanations: one, that through these holes passed the leather thongs (“ἱμάντες”) which formed a network to support the bed-clothes; another, that the holes were bored in the process of fitting together the parts of the frame.

[449] ὅμιλον, of Trojans.

[450] εἰ ... ἐσαθρήσειεν, § 198.1.

[453] φιλότητι, § 178.

εἴ τις ἴδοιτο is probably to be translated as the protasis of a past contrary to fact condition; the construction is extraordinary, but comparison may be made with I 515-517, X 20. For “εἰ τις ἴδοιτο, εἰ εἴδοντο” has been proposed, which conforms to the regular Attic construction, found in Homer also (e. g. l. 374). The line reads in the MSS.: “οὐ μὲν γὰρ φιλότητί γ᾽ ἐκεύθανον, εἴ τις ἴδοιτο

[457] φαίνετ᾽ (αι) ... “Μενελάου”, ‘seems to belong to Menelaus.’ Menelaus has not fulfilled the terms prescribed by Agamemnon (l. 284), for he has not slain Paris; but he has satisfied Hector's statement of the terms (l. 92), for Paris by deserting the lists has left him the victory. Compare note on l. 315. Menelaus did not notice Aphrodite's interference, and is of course, like the others, puzzled by Paris's disappearance.

[459] ἀποτινέμεν, § 213. Cf. notes on ll. 286, 287.

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