Book 3 (Γ）ὄρνιθες ὥς, scanned --- -; for the quantity of -θες see § 37. πέλει οὐρανόθι πρό, ‘rises in heaven, to the fore,’ ‘rises before heaven.’ Vergil (Aen. X, 264-266) condenses the simile thus: “quales sub nubibus atris
Strymoniae dant signa grues, atque aethera tranant
cum sonitu, fugiuntque notos clamore secundo.
” ‘As beneath the stormy clouds Strymonian cranes proclaim their approach, sweeping noisily through the air and fleeing before the winds “with clamor in their train.”’
 χειμῶνα, ‘winter.’
 The existence of pygmies was known to Herodotus also, who had heard of some little men living in a remote (and rather indefinite) country reached by journeying south and west from Libya (Herod. II, 32). Accounts of African pygmies are familiar enough from the reports of numerous travelers of our own day. So, while Homer's battles between pygmies and cranes belong to the realm of fairyland, it is not to be doubted that he had a basis of fact for his mention of the diminutive men.
Tennyson says of Paris in Oenone:
“A leopard skin
Droop'd from his shoulder, but his sunny hair
Cluster'd about his temples like a god's.
 προκαλίζετο, ‘challenged’ by his attitude, not by speech.σεύωνται, § 197.1. The apodosis (“κατεσθίει”) of this general condition is accompanied by “τε”, which while untranslatable often marks a general statement.
‘Like a man treading among prickly briers, who unwittingly sets foot upon a snake, and quivering recoils from it with a start as it rears its angry crest and swells its dark-hued neck: even so did Androgeus trembling at the sight start to retreat.’
 ὕπο, ‘beneath,’ adverb.ἔλλαβε, spelling, § 39. τε ... τε, here equivalent to ‘or’; cf. B 303, 346. ὑπόψιον may be translated as a substantive, ‘object of others' [“ἄλλων”] suspicion.’ ἀριστῆα πρόμον = “ἄριστον πρόμαχον”. For Paris as “πρόμαχος” cf. l. 16. [Some editors make “ἀριστῆα”, subject of “ἔμμεναι”, and “πρόμον” a predicate noun after it.] οὔνεκα καλὸν εἶδος ἔπ᾽ (ι), ‘because you have a fair form.’ ἀλλ᾽ οὐκ κτλ. may be Hector's own, not the reported gibes of the Achaeans; but if a comma be read for the colon (after ἔπ᾽), they may be regarded as a continuation of the Achaeans' thought. βίη is might for offense; ἀλκή, strength for defense.
 νυόν, ‘allied by marriage,’ here.
 οὐκ ἂν δὴ μείνειας § 206) “κτλ.”, ‘you had better not wait for martial Menelaus,’ ironical advice. For construction cf. B 250. Most editors put an interrogation point at the end of the line, making a taunting question.
 The protasis, ‘if you should wait,’ is understood. ‘Then you would know what sort of man he is whose blooming wife you have.’Ἀφροδίτης has initial syllable short, § 4. ὅτ᾽ ἐν κονίῃσι μιγείης, ‘vhen haply you roll in the dust,’ less vivid future protasis. The use of the plural “κονίῃσι” suggests the particles that compose the whole; cf. “ὀχέων”, l. 29.
 56, 57. ἦ τέ κεν ἤδη κτλ., the protasis—here wanting—may be supplied by ‘else’: ‘else surely you had already worn a chiton of stone.’ This is generally understood to mean ‘you would have been stoned to death’; but it may be that the allusion is to a mound of stones heaped up as a covering over the dead. Cf. II Samuel xviii, 17:And they took Absalom, and cast him into a great pit in the wood, and laid a very great heap of stones upon him. The Homeric line may easily carry both meanings; the same pile of stones that caused the death might serve as the dead man's barrow also (Studniczka). ὑπὲρ αἶσαν, ‘unduly.’
 Paris means, ‘with your words you have cut me to the quick.’
 εἶσιν, ‘goes,’ ‘is driven.’δουρός, ‘a timber.’ τέχνῃ, ‘with art,’ ‘skilfully.’
 As subject of ὀφέλλει understand ‘the axe’; it increases the effect of the man's blow by its sharpness.ἐρωήν, cf. note on B 179. εὖ strengthens πάντα, ‘each and every one.’ The treasures referred to were brought away from the palace of Menelaus when Helen eloped with Paris. φιλότητα, in same construction as “ὅρκια.” ταμόντες, cf. B 124. τοὶ δέ, the Greeks.
 μῦθον, ‘challenge’; cf. note on A 388.
 κέλεται, ‘he proposes.’Τρῶας and “Ἀχαιους” are in apposition to “ἄλλους”.
 αὐτόν, ‘himself.’
 ἀκὴν ἐγένοντο, ‘were hushed’; ἀκήν, an adverb, was originally an accusative case. No wonder they were silent, as a scholiast suggests: Paris, the adulterer, now coolly proposes a duel with the injured husband; already having taken the wife, he asks for the opportunity of taking the husband's life also.
 τέτυκται, ‘is prepared.’ἄρν᾽（ε), dual. The ‘white ram’ is an offering to the sun; the ‘black ewe,’ to the earth, black being the appropriate color of victims offered to the chthonian deities.
 The Greeks, being strangers (“ξεῖνοι”) in the land, propose to sacrifice to Zeus— “Ζεὺς δ᾽ ἐπιτιμήτωρ ἱκετάων τε ξείνων τε, ξείνιος, ὃς ξείνοισιν ἅμ̓ αἰδοίοισιν ὀπηδεῖ”. ‘For Zeus is the protector of suppliants and strangers, the strangers' god, who attends on strangers to whom respect is due’ (Od. 9.270, 271).Πριάμοιο βίην, ‘the might of Priam’= ‘mighty Priam.’—The expression ὅρκια τάμνῃ αὐτός evidently does not mean that Priam ‘by his own hand’ may perform the sacrifice, for Agamemnon does this (l. 273).
 108-110. General truths.μετ-έῃσι, § 136.6; on omission of “ἄν” or “κε” in the present general protasis, § 197. πρόσσω καὶ ὀπίσσω, for meaning cf. A 343.
 ἵππους, horses harnessed to chariots.ἐπὶ στίχας, ‘in rows,’ like 18.602. ἐκ ... ἔβαν, from the chariots; there was no cavalry in Homeric warfare. See Introduction. 27.
 ἀμφίς, ‘between,’ separating Achaeans and Trojans.
 τήν, relative.εἶχε, as his wife. ἐνέπασσεν, ‘was weaving therein.’ κε marks the participle as conditional; the only other instance, in Homer, of this use of “κε” is in l. 255; it is very likely suggested by the form of l. 71, “ὁππότερος δέ κε νικήσῃ”, where “κε” is of course regular with the subjunctive. κεκλήσῃ, ‘you shall be called,’ is nearly equivalent to ‘you shall be.’
 ἀνδρός, mentioned in ll. 52, 53.ἄστεος, Sparta. τοκήων, Leda and her husband Tyndareus; but Helen's father was Zeus (l. 199).
 οἳ δ᾽ ἀμφὶ Πρίαμον κτλ. The names are to be translated as nominatives; cf. Xen. Anab. III, 5, 1: “οἱ δ᾽ ἀμφὶ Τισσαφέρνην καὶ Ἀριαῖον ἀποτραυόμενοι ἄλλην ὁδὸν ᾤχοντο, οἱ δ᾽ ἀμφὶ Χειρίσοφον καταβάντες ἐστρατοπεδεύοντο κτλ.” ‘Tissaphernes and Ariaeus and those that were with them’ ... ‘Chirisophus and his followers.’
 δενδρέῳ, scansion, § 43; like “χρυσέῳ”, A 15. The note of the cicada is described as “λιγυρήν”, ‘shrill,’ ‘clear,’ in the familiar Anacreontic (32, l. 14), and perhaps the difficult λειριόεσσαν is intended to convey a similar meaning here; it is commonly translated ‘delicate.’ἱεῖσιν, Attic “ἱᾶσιν” (“ἵημι”), ‘send forth’: from “ἱέ-νσιν” § 133). In connection with this curious association of the aged councilors with cicadas, the story of Tithonus (note on B 447) may be recalled; but of course the poet here limits the likeness to the voice alone. ἵζευ, § 42.
 πηούς, connections by marriage.
 κεφαλῇ, ‘in stature,’ dative of respect, a subdivision of the instrumental use § 178); cf. “κεφαλῇ” (l. 193), “ὤμοισιν” (l. 194), and also the accusatives of specification, a closely related construction, “κεφαλήν” and “ὤμους”, l. 227.ἔασιν, cf. B 125.
 Helen's dutiful reply to Priam's kindly address of l. 162: ‘rev erend in my sight are you, dear father, and awful.’ἑκυρέ, ‘father-inlaw,’ once began with “σϝ”, the force of which consonants still survives in this line. For δϝεινός see § 62. γνωτούς, with special reference to her brothers, Castor and Polydeuces (l. 237). Ἑλένῃ δὲ θεοὶ γόνον οὐκέτ᾽ ἔφαινον, ἐπεὶ δὴ τὸ πρῶτον ἐγείνατο παῖδ᾽ ἐρατεινήν, Ἑρμιόνην, ἢ εἶδος ἔχε χρυσέης Ἀφροδίτης”. ‘To Helen the gods never again gave offspring, when once she had borne a lovely daughter, Hermione, who had the looks of golden Aphrodite.’— ὁμηλικίην, ‘companionship,’ i. e. ‘companions.’ τό, ‘therefore.’ τε after “βασιλεύς” is pleonastic. On the whole line cf. Xen. Memorabilia, III, 2, where Socrates is represented discussing the meaning of the words, in close connection with the other phrase commonly applied to Agamemnon, “ποιμένα λαῶν” (e. g. B 243): ‘Why does Homer praise Agamemnon in these words— “ἀμφότερον, βασιλεύς τ᾽ ἀγαθὸς κρατερός τ᾽ αἰχμητής”? Is it not because he would be a mighty warrior not if he alone should struggle nobly against the enemy, but if he should lead all his army to fight bravely; and a good king, not if he should direct his own life only with success, but if he should lead his subjects also to prosperity?’ εἴ ποτε ἔην γε, ‘if such he ever was’; an expression of painful doubt whether the past was really true.
 ‘In very truth, many were the sons of the Achaeans under your command, it now appears [“ῥα”],’ is a literal rendering; but the English idiom requires, ‘many are the sons of the Achaeans under your command, I now see.’ The Greek and the English take different points of view: the Greek suggests, ‘I was formerly somewhat mistaken in my view; it now appears [“ἄρα”] that all the time certain facts were true’ (and still continue so); the English lays emphasis on the present situation only, implying what the Greek states, just as the Greek implies what the English states. Compare similar examples, I 316, II 33, 60, etc.δεδμήατο, § 142, § 4, a: 188.
 Ἀμαζόνες: the tradition, recorded in the scholium, is that the Amazons, who lived by the Thermodon, overran Phrygia the Great, on a marauding expedition, in the time of the Phrygian leaders, Mygdon and Otreus. Priam went to the aid of the Phrygians, whose vast force greatly impressed him. It will be observed that the later story that the Amazons with their queen Penthesilea came to aid Priam against the Greeks scarcely tallies with this Homeric allusion in which Priam appears as the Amazons' enemy. In this myth of the Amazons' invasion of Asia Minor some scholars see a record of the incursions of northern tribes with their warlike women. Various peoples of the north had customs which agree remarkably with those ascribed to the Amazons; and it is not impossible that an extravagant version of their migrations survived in the Amazon myth. Another theory about the matter is set forth by A. H. Sayce in The Hittites, pp. 78-80, where it is maintained that the story of the Amazons has its origin in “the armed priestesses of the Hittite goddess.”ἰδέ = “καί.” ἰδέσθαι limits “εὐρύτερος”, ‘broader to look upon.’
‘In Ithaca there are neither broad runs nor any meadowland at all; it is grazed by goats and more lovely than a land where horses are pastured. For none of the isles that lie upon the sea is suited to horse driving or even rich in meadows; and of Ithaca this is true above all.’
 ἤδη γὰρ ... ποτ᾽（ε), cf. A 260. Menelaus and Odysseus came to Troy on an embassy before hostilities actually began; the incident is referred to elsewhere also (11.138-141). Their purpose was to demand Helen. At that time Antenor, son of Hicetaon, entertained them and frustrated a treacherous plot against their lives. After the capture of Troy, as the scholiast continues, Agamemnon gave orders to spare the home of Antenor, marking it by a suspended leopard skin.σεῦ is objective genitive with “ἀγγελίης”. For the order cf. l. 100: Ἀλεξάνδρου ἕνεκ᾽ ἀρχῆς. [Some understand “ἀγγελίης” as nominative=“ἄγγελος”, and take “σεῦ” with “ἕνεκ̓”（“α”).]
 στάντων, partitive genitive.ὑπείρεχεν, cf. B 426. ὤμους, accusative of specification.
 ἄμφω δ᾽ ἑζομένω, in apposition to the following nominatives, of which the first only, “Ὀδυσσεύς”, is expressed; the second, “Μενέλαος”, is implied. It is as if the poet had continued, “Μενέλαος δ᾽ ἧττον γεραρός”.
 ἦ, ‘although,’ ‘yet.’γένει, in sense of “γενεῇ”, ‘in birth,’ ‘in years.’ κατὰ χθονός, ‘down on the ground,’ with “ὄμματα πήξας”. In this construction the genitive probably illustrates the local use (cf. § 171, § 173).
 σκῆπτρον, why did he hold a scepter? Cf. A 234.ζάκοτον ... τιν᾽（α), ‘a very surly fellow,’ because he kept his eyes on the ground; ἄφρονα ... αὔτως, ‘a mere [or ‘perfect’] dolt,’ because he seemed not to know enough to gesticulate with the staff.
 ‘Then we were not so much amazed at seeing Odysseus's looks’ as we were at his words (scholium). His oratory was an agreeable surprise.τ᾽ is for “τοι”, § 40.4; or possibly “τε” (cf. A 521). μοι μία, ‘one with me,’ is short for ‘the same as my mother.’ “μία” here = “ἡ αὐτή”, and the dative is either a true dative or possibly “sociative.”
 The idea is, either they did not come at all, or although they came, they do not wish to take part in the battle.243, 244. The poet of these lines does not recognize the story, if he knew it, of the alternate immortality of the Dioscuri. It is mentioned, however, in the Odyssey (Od. 11.302-304). The lyric poet Pindar relates (Nemean X, 49-90) the story of the slaying of Castor, who was mortal; and he tells how immortal Polydeuces, with the consent of Zeus, shared his immortality with his brother: “μεταμειβόμενοι δ᾽ ἐναλλὰξ ἁμέραν τὰν μὲν παρὰ πατρὶ φίλῳ
Δὶ νέμονται, τὰν δ᾽ ὑπὸ κεύθεσι γαίας ἐν γυάλοις Θεράπνας,
πότμον ἀμπιπλάντες ὁμοῖον
”. ‘And shifting their abode by turns, they spend one day in company with their father Zeus, and the next they pass under the hidden places of the earth, in the recesses of Therapne, fulfilling a like destiny.’—Nemean X, 55-57. ὅρκια, offerings for cementing oaths, namely “ἄρνε δύω καὶ οἶνον” (l. 246).
 τάμητε, note the change to plural subject, ‘you all.’ἕποιτο, syntax, § 204.
 256-258. Cf. ll. 73-75.νέονται, with future meaning.
 δίφρον, accusative of limit of motion.ἔχον, ‘guided.’
 ὅρκια, cf. l. 245.
 The knife (“μάχαιραν”, l. 271), ‘which always hung by the great scabbard of his sword.’ἄωρτο (for which “ἄορτο” has been proposed as the proper spelling) is pluperfect of “ἀείρω”, and means, literally, ‘was suspended.’
 οἵ, ‘ye that,’ includes Hades and Persephone and in particular the Erinyes. Cf. T 258-260:“ἴστω νῦν Ζεὺς πρῶτα, θεῶν ὕπατος καὶ ἄριστος, Γῆ τε καὶ Ἠέλιος καὶ ἐρινύες, αἵ θ᾽ ὑπὸ γαῖαν ἀνθρώπους τίνυνται, ὅτις κ̓ ἐπίορκον ὀμόσσῃ”.
 τιμήν, ‘recompense,’ ‘fine.’ἀποτινέμεν, in same construction as “ἀποδοῦναι.” ἥντιν᾽ ἔοικεν, ‘whatever 'tis seemly’ (to pay).
 οὐκ instead of “μή” is found in this protasis because the negative modifies “ἐθέλωσιν” alone, with which it forms one idea, ‘refuse’; the construction is Attic also. If the negative were unattached, and modified the whole clause, it would be “μή”.
 ἧος, cf. A 193.
 ‘Whichever party may be first to commit wrong contrary to the oaths’—protasis of what sort of condition? GG. 651 (1).ῥέοι, syntax, § 201. ἄλλοισι δαμεῖεν, ‘become subject to others.’ ἄλλοισι, for prose “ὑπ᾽ ἄλλων”, is properly a dative of interest § 176), but commonly called dative of agent.
 ἐν = ‘before.’
 Why did Priam take away with him the two lambs that he had contributed to the sacrifice? A scholium says, ‘to bury them; for it was usual for citizens of the land to bury their oath-victims, and for strangers to cast theirs into the sea.’ (Cf. T 267 f.)
 χῶρον ... διεμέτρεον, cf. l. 344, which means, ‘and they [the combatants] stood near each other in the measured space.’ It is suggested in the scholia that certain bounds were determined for the contestants, retreat beyond which was an acknowledgment of defeat. These limits may well have served also to keep the spectators from crowding in. How far the contestants were separated at the beginning of the struggle, the reader is not told.
 ‘They shook the lots,’ says the poet; then after repeating the people's prayer, which is made while the shaking takes place, he recurs to the thought more definitely (l. 324) and adds, ‘Hector shook’ the lots.
 ‘Grant that he die and enter the house of Hades.’
 324, 325. The man whose lot jumped out of the helmet first was chosen —in this instance—to hurl the spear first. As it was an advantage under the present circumstances to have this first chance, Hector looked away, in shaking the helmet, to avoid any charge of unfair play.
 ἔκειτο (in meaning, passive of “τίθημι”), ‘were placed,’ conforms to its neuter plural subject “τεύχεα”. Its connection with the former subject, “ἵπποι”, is so loose that in translating “ἵπποι” another predicate, “ἕστασαν”, had better be supplied.
 Paris came light-armed, to fight as a bowman (cf. ll. 17 f.). Now in preparing for the duel, he arms as for a hand-to-hand contest.
 He puts on his brother's breastplate, for apparently he had not brought his own, as the duel was unexpected. He had one at home, however (Z 322).ἥρμοσε, if intransitive (cf. P 210, T 385), has “θώρηξ” under stood as subject; if transitive (cf. Od. 5.162, 247), has ‘he’ (Paris) as subject and “θώρηκα” understood as object.
 His sword and shield were suspended by straps passing over his shoulders, the sword strap probably over the right shoulder, the shield strap probably over the left. Cf. A 190.οἱ αἰχμή, ‘its point’; οἱ (dative of interest, § 176) refers to “χαλκός”, ‘the bronze’ head of the spear.
 ὤρνυτο, ‘poised himself.’ἐρρίγῃσι, form, § 136.6.
 ἀνασχόμενος, ‘raising his arm’ to deal the blow.αὐτῷ, i. e. the “φάλος”, on which see Introduction, 33.
 ἱμάντα βοός (genitive of material) “κτλ.”, ‘strap made from the skir of an ox slain with might.’ This means a strong strap; for, as the scholiast explains, the leather made from diseased animals, that die natural deaths, is inferior.κταμένοιο, aorist middle with passive meaning, § 185. τρυφάλεια, see Introduction, 33. θεός, feminine, as A 516, etc. ἴε = Attic “ᾔει” (“εἶμι”). ἐτίναξε, ‘shook’ her; supply “μιν”. μιν refers to the wool spinner; the subject of φιλέεσκεν is Helen.
 φαίης, with indefinite subject.
 δαιμονίη, ‘wonderful goddess!’Ὄλυμπον, accusative of limit of motion. ποιήσεται, § 144, II.
 If I do go, Helen reasons, the Trojan women will reproach me for being the cause of renewed hostilities. According to the terms of the compact, I ought now to go to the victor, not to the vanquished Paris.— ἔχω, ‘I already have.’οἶτον, cognate accusative. ἠνίπαπε occurred B 245.
 Paris is not candid enough to add that he himself escaped death by the timely intervention of Aphrodite only.πάρα, adverbial, as l. 135, A 611, B 279.
 ἀμφεκάλυψεν, ‘encompassed,’ or ‘enmeshed’ like a net (scholium). Many modern commentators prefer ‘enwrapt’ like a cloud.
 τρητοῖσι, ‘perforated’ with holes, applied to bedsteads. There are various explanations: one, that through these holes passed the leather thongs (“ἱμάντες”) which formed a network to support the bed-clothes; another, that the holes were bored in the process of fitting together the parts of the frame.
 ὅμιλον, of Trojans.εἴ τις ἴδοιτο is probably to be translated as the protasis of a past contrary to fact condition; the construction is extraordinary, but comparison may be made with I 515-517, X 20. For “εἰ τις ἴδοιτο, εἰ εἴδοντο” has been proposed, which conforms to the regular Attic construction, found in Homer also (e. g. l. 374). The line reads in the MSS.: “οὐ μὲν γὰρ φιλότητί γ᾽ ἐκεύθανον, εἴ τις ἴδοιτο
 φαίνετ᾽ (αι) ... “Μενελάου”, ‘seems to belong to Menelaus.’ Menelaus has not fulfilled the terms prescribed by Agamemnon (l. 284), for he has not slain Paris; but he has satisfied Hector's statement of the terms (l. 92), for Paris by deserting the lists has left him the victory. Compare note on l. 315. Menelaus did not notice Aphrodite's interference, and is of course, like the others, puzzled by Paris's disappearance.