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[2] κλαγγῇ τ᾽ ἐνοπῇ τ᾽ε), syntax, § 178.

ὄρνιθες ὥς, scanned --- -; for the quantity of -θες see § 37.

[3] περ = “καί”, ‘also,’ and belongs with “γεράνων”. Cf. A 131.

πέλει οὐρανόθι πρό, ‘rises in heaven, to the fore,’ ‘rises before heaven.’

Vergil (Aen. X, 264-266) condenses the simile thus: “quales sub nubibus atris
Strymoniae dant signa grues, atque aethera tranant
cum sonitu, fugiuntque notos clamore secundo.

‘As beneath the stormy clouds Strymonian cranes proclaim their approach, sweeping noisily through the air and fleeing before the winds “with clamor in their train.”’

[4] χειμῶνα, ‘winter.’

[5] ἐπ᾽ί) with genitive = ‘toward’ here.

[6] The existence of pygmies was known to Herodotus also, who had heard of some little men living in a remote (and rather indefinite) country reached by journeying south and west from Libya (Herod. II, 32). Accounts of African pygmies are familiar enough from the reports of numerous travelers of our own day. So, while Homer's battles between pygmies and cranes belong to the realm of fairyland, it is not to be doubted that he had a basis of fact for his mention of the diminutive men.

[7] ἔριδα, form, § 80.

[10] κατέχευεν, on translating the tense, § 184.

[11] κλέπτῃ δέ τε νυκτὸς ἀμείνω (accusative singular agreeing with “ὀμίχλην”, l. 10), ‘but better for a thief than night.’

[12] The order for translation is: “ἐπὶ τόσσον, ἐπὶ ὅσον”, (a man can see) ‘only so far as’ etc.

[14] πεδίοιο, syntax § 171.

[15] ἐπ᾽ ἀλλήλοισιν ἰόντες = Attic “ἐπ᾽ ἀλλήλους ἰόντες”.

[17] Tennyson says of Paris in Oenone: “A leopard skin
Droop'd from his shoulder, but his sunny hair
Cluster'd about his temples like a god's.

[19] προκαλίζετο, ‘challenged’ by his attitude, not by speech.

[22] μακρὰ (cognate accusative) βιβάντα, ‘with long strides.’

[23] ὥς τε λέων ἐχάρη, ‘as a lion rejoices,’ § 184.

[24] κεραόν, on quantity of the ultima, § 32.

[25] εἴ περ ἂν αὐτὸν

σεύωνται, § 197.1. The apodosis (“κατεσθίει”) of this general condition is accompanied by “τε”, which while untranslatable often marks a general statement.

[29] ἐξ ὀχέων, ‘from his chariot.’ Homer may use a plural form with reference to the different parts of which an object is composed. Cf. A 14, 45.

The use of chariots in Homer is limited to a comparatively few conspicuous warriors; the great majority of the fighting men go afoot. Sec Introduction. 27.

[31] φίλον ἦτορ, ‘in his heart,’ accusative of specification.

[33] ἀπέστη, gnomic aorist like “ἐχάρη” (l. 23); so too “ἔλλαβε” (l. 34), “ἀνεχώρησεν” (l. 35), “εἷλε” (l. 35).—The simile is imitated by Vergil

Improvisum aspris veluti qui sentibus anguem
pressit humi nitens, trepidusque repente refugit
attollentem iras et caerula colla tumentem:
haud secus Androgeus visu tremefactus abibat.

‘Like a man treading among prickly briers, who unwittingly sets foot upon a snake, and quivering recoils from it with a start as it rears its angry crest and swells its dark-hued neck: even so did Androgeus trembling at the sight start to retreat.’

[34] ὕπο, ‘beneath,’ adverb.

ἔλλαβε, spelling, § 39.

[35] παρειάς, with μιν, syntax, § 180.

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