οἳ δ᾽ ἀμφὶ Πρίαμον κτλ. The names are to be translated as nominatives; cf. Xen. Anab. III, 5, 1: “οἱ δ᾽ ἀμφὶ Τισσαφέρνην καὶ Ἀριαῖον ἀποτραυόμενοι ἄλλην ὁδὸν ᾤχοντο, οἱ δ᾽ ἀμφὶ Χειρίσοφον καταβάντες ἐστρατοπεδεύοντο κτλ.” ‘Tissaphernes and Ariaeus and those that were with them’ ... ‘Chirisophus and his followers.’
 δενδρέῳ, scansion, § 43; like “χρυσέῳ”, A 15. The note of the cicada is described as “λιγυρήν”, ‘shrill,’ ‘clear,’ in the familiar Anacreontic (32, l. 14), and perhaps the difficult λειριόεσσαν is intended to convey a similar meaning here; it is commonly translated ‘delicate.’ἱεῖσιν, Attic “ἱᾶσιν” (“ἵημι”), ‘send forth’: from “ἱέ-νσιν” § 133). In connection with this curious association of the aged councilors with cicadas, the story of Tithonus (note on B 447) may be recalled; but of course the poet here limits the likeness to the voice alone. ἵζευ, § 42.
 πηούς, connections by marriage.
 κεφαλῇ, ‘in stature,’ dative of respect, a subdivision of the instrumental use § 178); cf. “κεφαλῇ” (l. 193), “ὤμοισιν” (l. 194), and also the accusatives of specification, a closely related construction, “κεφαλήν” and “ὤμους”, l. 227.ἔασιν, cf. B 125.
 Helen's dutiful reply to Priam's kindly address of l. 162: ‘rev erend in my sight are you, dear father, and awful.’ἑκυρέ, ‘father-inlaw,’ once began with “σϝ”, the force of which consonants still survives in this line. For δϝεινός see § 62. γνωτούς, with special reference to her brothers, Castor and Polydeuces (l. 237). Ἑλένῃ δὲ θεοὶ γόνον οὐκέτ᾽ ἔφαινον, ἐπεὶ δὴ τὸ πρῶτον ἐγείνατο παῖδ᾽ ἐρατεινήν, Ἑρμιόνην, ἢ εἶδος ἔχε χρυσέης Ἀφροδίτης”. ‘To Helen the gods never again gave offspring, when once she had borne a lovely daughter, Hermione, who had the looks of golden Aphrodite.’— ὁμηλικίην, ‘companionship,’ i. e. ‘companions.’ τό, ‘therefore.’ τε after “βασιλεύς” is pleonastic. On the whole line cf. Xen. Memorabilia, III, 2, where Socrates is represented discussing the meaning of the words, in close connection with the other phrase commonly applied to Agamemnon, “ποιμένα λαῶν” (e. g. B 243): ‘Why does Homer praise Agamemnon in these words— “ἀμφότερον, βασιλεύς τ᾽ ἀγαθὸς κρατερός τ᾽ αἰχμητής”? Is it not because he would be a mighty warrior not if he alone should struggle nobly against the enemy, but if he should lead all his army to fight bravely; and a good king, not if he should direct his own life only with success, but if he should lead his subjects also to prosperity?’ εἴ ποτε ἔην γε, ‘if such he ever was’; an expression of painful doubt whether the past was really true.
 ‘In very truth, many were the sons of the Achaeans under your command, it now appears [“ῥα”],’ is a literal rendering; but the English idiom requires, ‘many are the sons of the Achaeans under your command, I now see.’ The Greek and the English take different points of view: the Greek suggests, ‘I was formerly somewhat mistaken in my view; it now appears [“ἄρα”] that all the time certain facts were true’ (and still continue so); the English lays emphasis on the present situation only, implying what the Greek states, just as the Greek implies what the English states. Compare similar examples, I 316, II 33, 60, etc.δεδμήατο, § 142, § 4, a: 188.
 Ἀμαζόνες: the tradition, recorded in the scholium, is that the Amazons, who lived by the Thermodon, overran Phrygia the Great, on a marauding expedition, in the time of the Phrygian leaders, Mygdon and Otreus. Priam went to the aid of the Phrygians, whose vast force greatly impressed him. It will be observed that the later story that the Amazons with their queen Penthesilea came to aid Priam against the Greeks scarcely tallies with this Homeric allusion in which Priam appears as the Amazons' enemy. In this myth of the Amazons' invasion of Asia Minor some scholars see a record of the incursions of northern tribes with their warlike women. Various peoples of the north had customs which agree remarkably with those ascribed to the Amazons; and it is not impossible that an extravagant version of their migrations survived in the Amazon myth. Another theory about the matter is set forth by A. H. Sayce in The Hittites, pp. 78-80, where it is maintained that the story of the Amazons has its origin in “the armed priestesses of the Hittite goddess.”